Produced by RMC Research Corporation Portsmouth New Hampshire Authors

Bonnie B. Armbruster, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Fran Lehr, M.A., Lehr & Associates, Champaign, Illinois

Jean Osborn, M. Ed., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

National Institute for Literacy

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

National Institute for Literacy

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

U.S. Department of Education

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Second Edition Spring 2003

This publication was produced under National Institute for Literacy Contract No. ED-00CO-0093 with RMC Research Corporation. Sandra Baxter served as the contracting officer's technical representative. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the policies of the National Institute for Literacy. No official endorsement by the National Institute for Literacy of any product, commodity, service, or enterprise in this publication is intended or should be inferred.

The National Institute for Literacy

Sandra Baxter Lynn Reddy

Interim Executive Director Communications Director

Spring 2003

To order copies of this booklet, contact the National Institute for Literacy at EdPubs, PO Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Call 800-228-8813 or email [email protected]. This booklet can also be downloaded at The Partnership for Reading web site, www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading.

The National Institute for Literacy, an independent federal organization, supports the development of high quality state, regional, and national literacy services so that all Americans can develop the literacy skills they need to succeed at work, at home, and in the community.

The Partnership for Reading, a project administered by the National Institute for Literacy, is a collaborative effort of the National Institute for Literacy, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the U.S. Department of Education, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to make evidence-based reading research available to educators, parents, policy makers, and others with an interest in helping all people learn to read well.

The Partnership for Reading acknowledges editorial support from C. Ralph Adler and design support from Diane Draper, both of RMC Research Corporation.

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