Page 16 'About one in five students is bullied regularly, and around one in five bully regularly.': Assoc. Prof. Ken Rigby, in a lecture, 2005.
Page 22 'Research has shown that some pick on nearly everyone at the beginning of a year, until someone reacts.': Hara Estroff Marano, 'Big. Bad. Bully' in Psychology Today, 28, 5, Sept./Oct. 1995. She quotes Dr Gary Ladd, Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois, who believes that bullies use a 'shopping process' to find their victims.
Page 23 'Dr Debra Pepler has found an ongoing relationship between the bully and the target.': This section is based on the work of Toronto psychologist Dr Debra Pepler, whose work is cited in Estroff Marano, 'Big. Bad. Bully', Psychology Today, 28, 5, Sept./Oct. 1995. She video-recorded children in the playground to demonstrate the bully-victim 'dance'.
Page 29 '...the non-malicious, or "the fowl that plays foul"': There are two types of bullies, according to Ken
Rigby: the malicious and non-malicious. I call them the 'saltwater crocodiles' and the 'fowls that play foul'. See also Rigby, Ken, Bullying in Schools and What to do About It, ACER, Melbourne, 1996.
Page 35 Shy child checklist: This list is based on what children and their parents have told me. Parents often say that it describes their child perfectly.
Page 38 'Most kids are affected by where they are, not who they are.': Based on the comment, 'Clearly, nice ordinary people are affected by where they are, not who they are', in an article by Ian Parkin in The Age referring to Professor Philip Zimbardo's work. See also Zimbardo, APA Monitor, October, 2004; Robert M. Sapolsky, A Primate's Memoir: A Neuroscientist's Unconventional Life Among the Baboons, Scribner, New York, 2002; and the 'obedience experiments' of Stanley Milgram at Yale.
Page 38 Pat Ferris has applied this concept to workplace bullying; it also provides a handy description of how schools approach it.': Ferris,
Patricia, 'A personal view. A preliminary typology of organisational response to allegations of workplace bullying: see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil' in British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol. 32, No. 3, August 2004.
Page 40 'The research clearly shows that schools should develop a closer working relationship with parents to reduce bullying.': See also my chapter in McGrath, H. and Noble, T. (eds), Bullying Solutions, Pearson, Sydney, 2005.
Page 44 'Dan Olveus, the Norwegian anti-bullying pioneer, believes that many targets come from over-protective families.': Targets tend to be close to their parents and may have parents who can be described as over-protective. Batsche and Knoff 1994; Olveus 1993.
Page 53 The body responds to extreme stress by "releasing a cascade of cortisol, adrenaline and other hormones that can damage brain cells, impair memory and set in motion a long-lasting and worsening disregulation of the body's complex biochemistry".': Butler, Kay, 'The biology of fear', The Family Therapy Networker, July/August 1996. Professor Rachel Yehuda, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, New York, has also written extensively on the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder. They include decreased levels of cortisol, increased glucocortid receptor sensitivity, stronger negative feedback inhibition and hyper-sensitivity. Basically, this means that reduced levels of cortisol prevent adrenaline from flowing, causing the victim to remain in a powerless state.
Trauma can lead to damage in the hippocampus and can inhibit memory and learning skills.
Page 54 Post-traumatic stress disorder: This is a simplified version of the diagnostic category for PTSD as described by the American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV), Washington DC, 1994.
Page 54 'Bullying can harm targets for years after leaving school.': Studies demonstrate that being bullied at school significantly increases the target's risk of susceptibility to anxiety disorders - such as social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, schizophrenia, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder - in later life. See for example the following: Murray, Bridget, 'School phobias hold many children back', American Psychology Association Monitor, Sept. 1997; Gilmartin, Brian G., 'Peer Group Antecedents of Severe Love-shyness in Males', Journal of Personality, Duke University Press, 55,3, Sept. 1987; Dr Margaret Gunther's pilot study at the University of New England, Armidale, January 1998; Rigby, Ken, Bullying in Schools and What to do About It, ACER, Melbourne, 1996; and Rigby, Ken, 'Can adverse peer relations at school drive children to suicide?' Lecture at International School of Psychology XXth Annual Colloquium, Melbourne, 1997.
Page 55 'More people get bullied at work than at school.': Workplace bullying occurs as readily in the elegant offices of a law firm as in the rough confines of an apprentice's shed. While the school target can exhibit social and schoolwork difficulties, the target of workplace bullying is usually a socially competent, conscientious employee. Workplace bullying occurs more frequently, has greater toxicity and creates a more devastating impact than school bullying. In addition to the personal injuries, it increases operational costs and reduces productivity. Not all school targets are bullied at work: some become bullies, while some adults experience bullying for the first time in the workplace. Counselling targets of school bullying is a brief process, whereas counselling people who are being bullied at work can take longer and, if they are too injured to work, it can take many years. The research into workplace bullying shows that more than 15 percent of employees are bullied at work and more in some industries. This is a 'guesstimate' based on a variety of studies: Prof. Heinz Leyman obtained a figure of 3.5 percent in Scandinavia (Leyman 1997), but the Workplace Bullying Project Team, Griffith University, Queensland (2001) arrived at a figure of15 percent based on a number of British and American studies. Drs Gary and Ruth Namie in the US also quote this figure based on their own research.
Page 55 'Most bystanders don't enjoy bullying as a spectator sport or as reality television.': Rigby, Ken & Slee, Phillip T., 'Bullying among Australian school children: Reported behaviour and attitudes toward victims', Journal of Social Psychology, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 131, 5 Oct. 1991, pp. 615-27.
Page 56 [Bullies] may experience depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts and trauma at school and later.': Bullies are often more likely to have a criminal record by the time of their mid-twenties, more likely to bash their wives and abuse their children. See Estroff Marano, Hara, 'Big. Bad. Bully', Psychology Today, 28, 5, Sept./Oct. 1995. Young bullies have a one-in-four chance of having a criminal record by age 30 (Huesmann, L.R., Eron, L.D., Lefkowitz, M.M. and Walder, L.O., 'Stability of aggression over time and generations', Developmental Psychology (20) 1120-1134, 1984). Daniel Goleman (author ofEmotional Intelligence), writing in the American Psychology Association Monitor, October 1998, discussed the need for children to develop emotional intelligence. This includes being aware of their own feelings, handling distressing emotions, motivating themselves towards achievement, understanding emotions in others, and possessing basic social skills. Children who do not learn these skills are 'more likely to be the schoolyard bullies or the schoolyard rejects'.
Page 92 If your child is a bully':
With thanks to Kidscape, UK.
Page 108 Current research demonstrates that most primary schools reduce bullying by 15 percent and sceondary schools by 12 percent.':
Lecture presented at the 2005 conference on school bullying, Melbourne, organised by the National Coalition Against Bullying. Prof Ken Rigby is the major researcher on school bullying in Australia, and Dr Peter Smith is a major UK researcher.
Page 109 The research into workplace bullying indicates that more than 15 percent of employees are se riously bullied at work. ': This is a 'guesstimate' based on a variety of studies: Prof Heinz Leyman found a figure of 3.5 percent in Scandinavia (Leyman 1997), but the Workplace Bullying Project Team at Griffith University, 2004, arrived at 15 percent based on a number of British and American studies. Drs Gary and Ruth Namie also quote this figure from their research. Many studies claim that bullying can reach higher than 50 percent.
Page 109 'In an Australian study, about 50 percent of teachers were bullied - usually by colleagues, but also by parents and students.':
Newsmonth, Vol 24, No. 7, 2004 Unionsafe Survey on Workplace Bullying, NSW Independent Teachers' Union. See also BBC News website 12/04/03: 'One out of every two teachers has been bullied at school -often by their head teachers, according to a survey.' This means that many teachers feel abused and unsafe, while others bully. Both may model inappropriate behaviours to their students. Teachers cannot be expected to support a whole-school anti-bullying policy while bullying or being bullied themselves.
Page 115 'The majority of bullying incidents are witnessed by peers. When they intervene, they are successful 50 percent of the time.': Ken
Rigby, lecture for National Coalition Against Bullying, 2005.
Page 118 '7. Improve the physical environment': With thanks to Professor Donna Cross.
Page 120 'The method of shared concern.': See Pikas, A., 'The common concern method for the treatment of mobbing', E. Roland and E. Munthe (eds), Bullying - an International Perspective, Fulton, London, 1989. Pikas has designed this method to help students coexist rather than to establish what happened and who was to blame.
Page 121 'The no-blame approach.':
See Maines and Robinson, Cryingfor Help - the No-Blame Approach to Bullying, Lucky Duck Publishing, Bristol, 1997.
Page 121 'Restorative practices.':
With thanks to David Moore and Margaret Thorsborne. This conflict-resolution method, also known as restorative justice or conferencing, can be used to resolve some difficult situations at school, in the workplace, the criminal justice system and the community. It involves a formally-structured conversation between everyone involved in a dispute or an aggressive incident. This could include students, onlookers, teachers, parents and local community personnel. Some school staff need to be trained as conference facilitators. They need to determine what happened, how it has affected people, and what might now be done to improve the situation -as opposed to who has done the wrong thing and what should be done to them. Conferencing is consistent with the principles of deliberative democracy and procedural fairness. Participants are given an opportunity, in a specific sequence, to talk about what has happened, and how they have been affected. They then consider together how the situation might be improved, how specific harms might be repaired, and how the group can minimise further destructive conflict. The conference agreement is recorded in writing, signed, and a copy provided to each participant. The outcomes can vary from establishing a shared understanding of what happened, to an apology, to changing dysfunctional systems, e.g. changing lockers or occupying bored kids at recess. Then those involved can learn and move on.
The following example is to encourage schools to share their successes and to find new methods. Don't just adopt the latest trend. Teachers working at the ground level can be very creative and innovative as they find simple ideas that work with their children. Paul McBride has been developing a small, simple incident and observation booklet that teachers can use in the yard and maintain as part of the school records.
Page 122 'Paul McBride has been developing a small, simple incident and observation booklet.': Paul McBride is Student Wellbeing Coordinator at Holy Family Primary School, Geelong. The booklet is part of his thesis.
Page 122 'Some time ago, Karen McDonald, a primary-school counsellor, sent me a copy of her policies and programmes.': Karen McDonald is the counsellor at Dakota Meadows Middle School, Mankato, Minnesota, US.
Page 182 'Most kids judge each other in the first four seconds!':
Author's personal opinion.
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