About the Authors in Volume

VIRGINIA D. ALLHUSEN is a Research Associate in the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, School of Social Ecology, the University of California at Irvine. She earned a B.S. at Duke University and a M.A. and Ph.D. at Cornell University. She is a Co-Principal Investigator on the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. She is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Research in Child Development, and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Allhusen's research interests include children's attachment relationships with parents and other care providers, daycare quality and its effects on social development, and the social networks of young children and their families.

NAOMI BARENDS is a doctoral student in child clinical psychology at the Pennsylvania State University. She is a graduate of Brown University (B.A.), and she received her M.Sc. at the Pennsylvania State University. She is a student affiliate of the Society for Research in Child Development and the American Psychological Association. Her professional interests include the effects of personality disorders and normal personality on parenting and child development as well as clinical work with both children and adults.

KATHRYN E. BARNARD is Professor of Nursing and Adjunct Professor of Psychology and Affiliate of the Center for Human Development and Disability at the University of Washington. She received her B.S. in Nursing from the University of Nebraska and her M.S. in Maternal Child Nursing from Boston University; she earned her Ph.D. in the Ecology of Early Development at the University of Washington. The theme of Barnard's research has been on parenting and child outcomes. She is the author of the NCAST scales to evaluate parent-child interaction. She has served on numerous boards including Zero to Three: The National Center for Infants and Children, The Carnegie Task Force on Meeting the Needs of Young Children; the Department of Health and Human Services' Secretary's Committee on the Design of Early Head Start, the Washington Governor's Commission on Early Learning, and the Washington Foundation for Early Learning. She has served on the Advisory Board of the Infant Mental Health Journal and the Journal of Scholarly Nursing Practice.

JAY BELSKY, Director of the Institute for the Study of Children, Families and Social Issues and Professor of Psychology, Birkbeck University of London, received his B.A. from Vassar College and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Human Development and Family Studies from Cornell University. He was previously on the faculty of the Pennsylvania State University. Belsky's interests focus on the intersection of child development, family relationships, and the broader ecology of human development. He is involved in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and the Dunedin (New Zealand) Multidisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Health and Development. Belsky is the author of The Transition to Parenthood: How a First Child Changes a Marriage.

JEANNE BROOKS-GUNN is the Virginia and Leonard Marx Professor of Child Development and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, and Director of the Center for Children and Families. She received her B.A. from Connecticut College, E.M. from Harvard University, and Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. Formerly, she was a Senior Research Scientist at Educational Testing Service and Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. Brooks-Gunn is a member of the Roundtable on Children at the Brookings Institute, the MacArthur Network on the Family and the Economy, and the NICHD Research Network on Child and Family Well-Being. She has served on three National Academy of Science Panels. She is past president of the Society for Research on Adolescence and is a Fellow in the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. She received the Vice President's National Performance Review Hammer Award, the Nicholas Hobbs Award from the American Psychological, and the John B. Hill Award from the Society for Research on Adolescence. Brooks-Gunn's specialty is policy-oriented research focusing on family and community influences on the development of children, youth, and families. Her research centers around designing and evaluating interventions aimed at enhancing the well-being of children living in poverty and associated conditions. She is author of over 300 published articles and 15 books, including Adolescent Mothers in Later Life and He and She: How Children Develop Their Sex Role Identity as well as several edited volumes, including, Consequences of Growing up Poor, Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children?, Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, Volume 1. Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods, Volume 2., Social Cognition and the Acquisition of Self, Girls at Puberty: Biological and Psychosocial Perspectives, Encyclopedia of Adolescence, Transitions Through Adolescence: Interpersonal Domains and Context, and Conflict and Cohesion in Families: Causes and Consequences.

M. JEANELL BUCK is a graduate student in the Department of Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. She received her B.S. from the University of Texas at El Paso. She has participated in research investigating possible problems associated with the child interviewing in the McMartin preschool case, the Kelly Michael's case, and numerous CPS cases. Her research interests include parent-child relationships, especially discipline, and the processes that underlie family violence.

DAPHNE B. BUGENTAL is Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology and Co-Director of the Interdisciplinary Program in Human Development, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She received her B.A. and Ph.D. at the University of California, Los Angeles. She was a Fellow in the University of Iowa Social Psychophysiology Program. Bugental is a Fellow in the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. She is a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, the International Society for Research on Emotion, the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Society for Psychophysiological Research. She is past Associate Editor of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Her research has tested a bio-social-cognitive model of parent-child relationships.

K. ALISON CLARKE-STEWART is Professor in the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior and Associate Dean for Research, School of Social Ecology, at the University of California-Irvine. She received her education at the University of British Columbia (B.A., M.A.) and Yale University (Ph.D.). She was previously at the University of Chicago in the Department of Education and the Committee on Human Development. Clarke-Stewart is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society and a member of the Society for Research in Child Development and the International Society for Infant Studies. Her research interests include the study of family interactions, daycare, divorce and custody, and children's eyewitness testimony. She is a Principal Investigator in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. She has written Daycare and Children at Home and in Daycare.

BERTRAM J. COHLER is William Rainey Harper Professor of the Social Sciences, The College and The Committee on Human Development, The Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, and The Committee on General Studies in the Humanities, The University of Chicago. He received his education at The University of Chicago (B.A.) and Harvard University (Ph.D). He received his psychoanalytic education at The Institute for Psychoanalysis (Chicago) in clinical and theoretical aspects of psychoanalysis. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, The Gerontological Society, and past President of the American Orthopsychiatric Association. He has been editor of Psychoanalytic Psychology. His research interests include parenthood and intergenerational relations, the study of parents with chronic psychiatric illness and their offspring, and narrative methods and study of the life-history. He is coauthor of two books on parenting, Mentally Ill Mothers and Their Children and Mothers, Grandmothers and Daughters: Personality and Child Care in Three Generation Families, as well as coauthor of the Essential Other and The Course of Gay and Lesbian Lives, and coeditor of the Psychoanalytic Study of Lives over Time.

ANN C. CROUTER is Professor of Human Development in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Health and Human Development, at the Pennsylvania State University. She received her B.A. from Stanford University and Ph.D. from Cornell University. She serves on the Executive Council of the Society for Research in Adolescence and is a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, and the American Psychological Society. She currently serves as Deputy Editor of the Journal of Marriage and the Family. Her research interests focus on the implications of mothers' and fathers' employment circumstances for family dynamics, including parents' knowledge about their children's and adolescents' daily experiences, for the development of school-age children and adolescents.

WENDY DECOURCEY is a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology program at Clark University.

JACK DEMICK is the Research Director of the Center for Adoption Research and an affiliate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Demick was educated at Yale University (A.B.) and Clark University (M.A. and Ph.D.). He was professor at Suffolk University in Boston. Demick's theoretical interests are in a holistic, developmental, systems-oriented approach to person-inenvironment functioning across the lifespan, and his research interests include the study of cognitive and social development. He serves as the editor of the Journal ofAdult Development.

LINDA M. DREW is a Post Doctoral Research Fellow at the Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California. She completed her Ph.D. at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Her research interests are in family relationships, gerontology, and bereavement.

PAULINE I. ERERA is Associate Professor at the University of Washington School of Social Work. She received her BSW and MSW from the University of Haifa and her Ph.D. from Cornell University. Her research focus is on family diversity. Her publications include articles on stepfamilies, foster families, lesbian families, and noncustodial fathers. She wrote, Family Diversity: Continuity and Change in the Contemporary Family.

SUSAN GOLOMBOK is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Family & Child Psychology Research Centre at City University, London. She was educated at the University of Glasgow where she graduated with a B.Sc., London University Institute of Education where she obtained a M.Sc., and London University Institute of Psychiatry where she was awarded a Ph.D. The main focus of the Family & Child Psychology Research Centre is the investigation of the effects of nontraditional families on parenting and child development. Her research examines the impact on children's social, emotional and identity development, and on parent-child relationships, of being reared in new family forms, including lesbian mother families, solo mother families, and families created by contemporary reproductive technologies (IVF, donor insemination, egg donation, and surrogacy). Golombok co-authored Bottling It Up, Gender Development, Growing up in a Lesbian Family,

Modern Psychometrics, and Parenting: What Really Counts?

JACQUELINE JARRETT GOODNOW is a Professorial Research Fellow at Macquarie University, Sydney. She obtained her B.A. from the University of Sydney and her Ph.D. from Harvard. Her previous positions were at the University of Sydney, Harvard, the Walter Reed Institute of Research, and George Washington University. Her work is concerned with the way people frame tasks and perceive options and with the influence of social contexts (familial or cultural) on these aspects of behavior. Goodnow received the G. Stanley Hall Distinguished Scientist Award and an Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research from the Society for Research in Child Development. She is coauthor or coeditor of A Study of Thinking, Children Drawing, Children and Families in Australia, Women, Social Science and Social Policy, Home and School: Child's Eye Views, Development According to Parents, Parental Belief Systems, Men, Women, And Household Work, and Cultural Practices as Contexts for Development.

MARCY B. GRINGLAS is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia. She received her B.A. from Indiana University in Bloomington, her M.A. from Columbia University, and her Ph.D. from Temple University. Her research includes longitudinal follow-up of high-risk infants and early childhood development. Gringlas is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Research in Child Development, the World Association for Infant Mental Health, and the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs.

KEITH R. HAPPANEY is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Psychology at the University of Toronto. He received his education at Lehman College of the City University of New York (B.A.) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (M.A., Ph.D.). Happaney is a member of the American Psychological

Society, the Society for Research in Child Development, and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.

His research concerns the effects of social context on children's emerging theory of mind.

MELISSA R. HEAD is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Health and Human Development, at the Pennsylvania State University. She received her B.A. from Transylvania University in Lexington, KY, and her M.S. from the Pennsylvania State University. She is amember of the Society for Research in Child Development, Society for Research in Adolescence, National Council on Family Relations, International Network on Personal Relationships, and the International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships. Her research interests include the study of parent-adolescent relationships and parental development.

CHRISTOPH M. HEINICKE is a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Director of the Family Development Project at the University of California, Los Angeles. Heinicke received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. His clinical training began at the Anna Freud Hampstead Clinic, London, where he collaborated with Bowlby in the study of the effects of mother-child separation. Heinicke has studied child outcomes of psychotherapy; how casework combines with individualized daycare to affect child development; prebirth parent personality and marital characteristics that have an impact on early family development; and optimal conditions of home interventions to enhance family development of first-time mothers identified as being at risk for neglecting and abusing children. Heinicke's book Brief Separation was awarded the Lester Hoffheimer Prize for research in psychiatry.

E. MAVIS HETHERINGTON is Emerita Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Virginia. She received her education at the University of British Columbia (B.A., M.A.) and at the University of California at Berkeley (Ph.D.) and previously was on the faculty at Rutgers University at Newark and the University of Wisconsin at Madison. She is a past President of Division 7 of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Research in Adolescence, and the Society for Research in Child Development. Among her awards are Distinguished Scientists Awards from the American Psychological Society, the National Council on Family Relations, the Society for Research in Child Development, the Society for Research in Adolescence, Division 7 of the American Psychological Association, the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy and the American Family Therapy Association. In addition, she has received the University of Virginia Jefferson Award, the State of the Virginia Professor of the Year Award, and the American Psychological Association Teaching Award. She has been associate editor of Developmental Psychology and editor of Child Development. Among her books, authored, coauthored, or edited, are Coping With Divorce, Single Parenting and Remarriage; Family Transitions; Child Development: A Contemporary Viewpoint; The Relationship Code and Advances in Family Research; and Stress, Coping and Resiliency in Children and Families.

GEORGE W. HOLDEN is Professor and Associate Chair of the Psychology Department at the University of Texas at Austin. He received his B.A. from Yale University and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Society and a member of the Society for Research in Child Development and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. His research interests include parent-child relationships, parental social cognition, and the problem of family violence. He is currently on the editorial boards of Developmental Psychology and the Journal of Emotional Abuse. Holden is the author of Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing and coeditor of Children Exposed to Marital Violence and The Handbook of Family Measurement Techniques, Volumes 2 and 3.

DANIELLE LYNN HORVATH is a doctoral candidate in the Developmental Psychology Program at Temple University. She received her B.A. from The Pennsylvania State University. She is assistant to the editor of Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development and a Research Assistant in the NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. Her research interests include contextual and indigenous influences on maternal sensitivity, attachment during middle childhood, childhood psychopathology, and familial influences on child development.

INNA KHAZAN is a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology program at Clark University.

KATHLEEN KOSTELNY is a Research Associate at the Erikson Institute for Advanced Study in Child Development. She received her her B.A. from Bethel College, her M.A. from the University of Chicago, and her Ph.D. from Erikson Institute/Loyola University. Kostelny's research interests pertain to the protection of children and families in dangerous enviornments. She is coauthor of Children in Danger: Coping with the Consequence of Community Violence and No Place to Be a Child: Growing Up in a War Zone.

ANN V. McGILLICUDDY-DE LISI is the Marshall R. Metzgar Professor of Psychology at Lafayette College. She was educated at the University of Rochester (B.A.) and the Catholic University of America (M.A., Ph.D.). She was a Research Scientist at the Educational Testing Service and has served on the editorial boards of

Child Development and the Journal ofApplied Developmental Psychology. McGillicuddy-De Lisi is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Jean Piaget Society, and the Society for Research in Child Development. Her research interests include the study of families as learning environments for children and parents, the development of spatial knowledge, children's moral reasoning, and the development of sex differences in mathematical and spatial performance. She is coeditor of Biology, Society, and Behavior: The Development of Sex Differences in Cognition as well as Parental BeliefSystems: The Psychological Consequences for Children.

JAMES P. McHALE is Associate Professor and Director of Clinical Training in the Department of Psychology, Clark University. He received his education at the University of South Florida (B.S.), Tulane University (M.S.), and the University of California at Berkeley (Ph.D.). His research has examined the nature of interadult parenting support, coordination, and distress in families of young children, and the effect of different coparental dynamics on children's socioemotional development. He is a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, the International Council for Infant Studies, the World Association for Infant Mental Health, and the National Council on Family Relations. He is editor of Retrospect and Prospect in the Psychological Study of Families and Understanding How Family-Level Dynamics Affect Children's Development.

MELANIE McCONNELL is a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology program at Clark University.

MIGNON R. MOORE is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Columbia University, where she also directs the Undergraduate Program in African American Studies. Moore received the B.A. from Columbia and M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in the Department of Sociology. She has been a postdoctoral Fellow at the Poverty Research and Training Program at the University of Michigan and a Ford Foundation Dissertation

Fellow. Her research interests are in family structure, parent-child relationships, adolescent sexuality and well-being, urban poverty, and racial and ethnic identity. Much of her research focuses on the effects of family environment and community context on adolescent outcomes, particularly for disadvantaged and African American youth.

ROSS D. PARKE is Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Director of the Center for Family Studies at the University of California, Riverside. Parke was educated at the Universities of Toronto and Waterloo and previously was affiliated with the Universities of Wisconsin and Illinois and the Fels Research Institute. He is a past President of Division 7, the Developmental Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association, and is President-Elect of the Society for Research in Child Development. His interests include the relations between families and peers, ethnic variation in families, and the impact of new reproductive technologies on families. He has been editor of Developmental Psychology and associate editor of Child Development, and is currently editor of the Journal of Family Psychology. Parke is the author of Fathers and Fatherhood and coauthor of Child Psychology and Throwaway Dads.

CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Center for Children, Families, and the Law at the University of Virginia. She received her B.A. at Pomona College and her M.A. and Ph.D. at Stanford University. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, the American Psychological Society, and the National Council on Family Relations. Patterson won the Outstanding Achievement Award of the American Psychological Association's Committee on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Concerns and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from Division 44 of the American Psychological Association. Her research interests focus on social and personality development of children and adolescents in the context of family, peer, and school environments; on child development in lesbian- and gay-parented families; and on the role of sexual orientation in human development. She is the coeditor of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Identities Over the Lifespan, Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Identities in Families, and Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Identities Among Youth.

SUSAN PAUL is a doctoral candidate in the Committee on Human Development, The University of Chicago. She received her education at Beloit College (B.A.) and The School of Social Service Administration of The University of Chicago (M.A.).

TAMIR ROTMAN is a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology program at Clark University.

IRVING E. SIGEL is Distinguished Research Scientist (Emeritus) at Educational Testing Service. He received his B.A. at Clark University and his M.A. and Ph.D. at the University of Chicago and Hon. Doctor of Science at Clark University. He was previously associated with Smith College, Michigan State University, the Merrill-Palmer Institute, and SUNY, Buffalo. Sigel is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, and a member of the Jean Piaget Society. His research interests are in socialization of cognitive development, especially in the context of the family. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, editor of the series, Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, as well coeditor of Parental Belief Systems.

PETER K. SMITH is Professor of Psychology and Head of the Unit for School and Family Studies at Goldsmiths College, University of London. He received his B.Sc. at the University of Oxford and his Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield. Smith is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society. Smith is on the editorial board of Social Development, Children & Society, and Evolution and Human Behavior. His research interests are in social development, grandparenting, play, bullying, and evolutionary theory. He is editor of The Psychology of Grandparenthood, coauthor of Understanding Children's Development, and coeditor of Theories of Theories of Mind and The Nature of School Bullying.

JOANNE E. SOLCHANY is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Family and Child Nursing, School of Nursing, at the University of Washington, in Seattle. She holds degrees from Western Washington University in Bellingham, WA (B.A.), University of Alaska, Anchorage (B.S.N.), University of California, San Francisco (M.S.N.), and the University of Washington in Seattle (Ph.D.). She is a clinical specialist, nurse practitioner, and psychotherapist in Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Solchany is currently a Solnit Fellow with Zero to Three, The National Center for Clinical Infant Studies. Her research interests are in adoption, attachment, maternal deprivation, infant mental health, prenatal mental health, and intervention development. She has recently written Working with Women in Pregnancy: Theory, Practice, and Intervention.

MARGARET M. STANLEY-HAGEN was Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. She completed her Ph.D. at the University of Virginia. Her research focused on individual differences in coping with life stresses and the personal, family, and community factors that facilitate or impede coping. She studied relationships and adjustment in families experiencing marital transitions and published on family relationships within divorced and remarried families. Stanley-Hagen worked with a Charlotte-based intervention program that coordinates community-based services to improve the family and community lives of poor preschool children who are at risk for school failure.

MARSHA WEINRAUB is the Laura H. Camell Professor of Psychology at Temple University, Director of the Laboratory for Personality and Social Development, and Chair of the Developmental Program in the Psychology Department. She received her education at Brandeis University (B.A.) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D). Weinraub was at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society, a member of the Society for Research in Child Development and the International Society for Infant Studies, and a recipient of the Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching at Temple University. She has served on the editorial boards of Child Development and the Psychology of Women. Her research interests include the study of early personality development, parent-child interactions, childcare, maternal employment, and single parenting.

PATRICIA ZUKOW-GOLDRING is Research Associate Professor in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Southern California, and she was Research Scholar at the Center for the Study of Women at the University of California, Los Angeles. She received her education at the University of California, Los Angeles (B.A., M.A., and Ph.D.) and has held academic positions in Psychology at the Universidad Anahuac in Mexico

City and at UCLA and in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine. She has received an individual NIMH Fellowship, A. W. Mellon Fellow in Literacy, and a Visiting Fellowship from the British Psychological Society. Her research explores how children come to notice, participate in, and communicate within daily activities at home and at school. Zukow-Goldring has conducted studies among rural and urban families in Central Mexico and among Latino blue-collar and European American middle-socioeconomic families in the Western United States. Zukow-Goldring edited Sibling Interaction Across Cultures: Methodological and Theoretical Issues and served as coeditor of Evolving Explanations of Development: Ecological Approaches to Organism-Environment Systems.

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