Contents of Volume Being and Becoming a Parent

About the Authors in Volume 3 xxv Kathryn E. Barnard and JoAnne E. Solchany 3 Chapter 3 Coparenting in Diverse Family Systems James McHale, Inna Khazan, Pauline Erera, Tamir Rotman, 75 Wendy DeCourcey, and Melanie McConnell Marsha Weinraub, Danielle L. Horvath, and Marcy B. Gringlas 109

Introduction

Theoretical assumptions that guide research in this area both explain the choice of topics and provide an organizational structure for this chapter. First, to understand fully the nature of father-child relationships, it is necessary to recognize the interdependence among the roles and the functions of all family members. Families are best viewed as social systems. Consequently, to understand the behavior of one member of a family, the complementary behaviors of other members also need to be...

Preparing For Motherhood

Through their intimate involvement with women's childbearing experiences, nurses have historically been witnesses to women becoming mothers from physical, psychological, and social perspectives. Over the past four decades, nurses, especially Rubin (1967a, 1967b, 1977, 1984) and Mercer (1981, 1985), have captured the development of mothering through empirical studies. The primary process involved is attaining the maternal role, which includes the development of maternal identity and role...

Conclusions

Information from the childcare study by the National Institute of Child Health and Development has demonstrated application of the concept Hrdy labels as allomothers (1999). Allomothering is shared mothering, common in both human and animal species. It is a variation in mothering that includes all persons who mother or help to mother the child, including (but not limited to) the mother's mate, extended family, peers, and neighbors. Allomothering helps to spread out the cost and responsibility...

Unit of Analysis

Current work clearly recognizes the importance of considering fathers from a family systems perspective. However, our conceptual analysis of dyadic and triadic units of analysis is still limited (Barrett and Hinde, 1988 Parke, 1988 McHale et al., 2002). Considerable progress has been made in describing the behavior of individual interactants (e.g., mother, father, child) within dyadic and, to a lesser extent, triadic settings, but less progress has been achieved in developing a language for...

Chapter Parenting Girls and Boys

Chapter 8 Parenting Twins and the Genetics of Parenting Hugh Lytton with Lin Gallagher 227 Chapter 9 Child Temperament and Parenting Samuel P. Putnam, Ann V. Sanson, and Mary K. Rothbart 255 Chapter 10 Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families David M. Brodzinsky and Ellen Pinderhughes 279 Jeffrey Haugaard and Cindy Hazan 313 Chapter 12 Parenting Children Born Preterm Susan Goldberg and Barbara DiVitto 329 Chapter 13 Parenting Children with Mental Retardation Chapter 14 Parents of...

Competence Versus Performance

The lower level of father involvement in caregiving and other forms of interaction does not imply that fathers are less competent than mothers to care for infants and children. Competence can be measured in a variety of ways One approach is to measure the parent's sensitivity to infant cues in the feeding context. Success in caregiving, to a large degree, depends on the parent's ability to correctly read or interpret the infant's behavior so that the parent's own behavior can be regulated to...

Quantitative Assessments of Father Involvement in Intact Families

The extent to which fathers in intact families participate in childcare needs to be distinguished from the level of involvement of fathers who are not coresident with their children for a variety of reasons, including divorce or out-of-wedlock births. In fact, this conceptual distinction reflects the contradictory trends in the fathering literature that Furstenberg 1988, p. 193 has characterized as the two faces of fatherhood. On the one hand, fathers seem to be increasing their involvement and...

About the Authors in Volume

ALLHUSEN is a Research Associate in the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, School of Social Ecology, the University of California at Irvine. She earned a B.S. at Duke University and a M.A. and Ph.D. at Cornell University. She is a Co-Principal Investigator on the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. She is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Research in Child Development, and the National Association for the Education of...

Is There a Universal Father Play Style

Some cross-cultural studies support the generality of this pattern of mother-father differences in play style. Parents in England and Australia show similar gender differences Russell and Russell, 1987 Smith and Daglish, 1977 . However, other evidence suggests that this pattern of mother-father differences in play style may be, in part, culture bound. Specifically, neither in Sweden Lamb, Frodi, Hwang, and Frodi, 1982 nor among Israeli kibbutz families Sagi et al., 1985 were there clear...