Methodological Issues

It is likely that no single methodological strategy will suffice for understanding of the development of the father's role in the family. Instead, a wide range of designs and data collection and data analysis strategies is necessary (Parke, 2000). To date, there is still a paucity of information concerning interrelations across molar and molecular levels of analysis. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that a microanalytic strategy is not always more profitable in terms of describing...

Types of Developmental Change

Developmental issues need to be addressed more fully to include children at a wider range of ages. Moreover, we need to move beyond childhood and examine more closely father relationships with their adult children if we are to achieve a lifespan view of fathering. Although development traditionally has marked change in the individual child, it is evident from this review that this perspective is too limited, and fathers, as well as children, continue to develop across time (Parke, 1988, 1990,...

Womens and mens employment patterns and the parental roles in the family

Relations between employment patterns of both women and men and their family roles are increasingly being recognized (Deutsch, 1999 Gottfried, Gottfried, Bathurst, and Killian, 1999 Hoffman, 2000). In this subsection, a variety of issues concerning the links between the worlds of work and family is considered to illustrate the impact of recent shifts in work patterns on both men's and women's family roles. The impact of changes in the rate of maternal employment on both quantitative and...

Mothering As A Holding Environment For The Child

To this point we have dealt with attainment of maternal role during pregnancy and the first year of life. Mercer's (1985,1986) work embraces the first year of the child's life, yet it deals primarily with the mother's own perception of her role, how well she fulfills it, and how satisfying it is to her. The next step is to explore what it is that mothers actually do with children. We focus on mothers because in our experience, we have found that, in the vast majority of cultures around the...

Individual Factors

Men's own psychological and family background, attitudes toward the fathering role, motivation to become involved, and childcare and childrearing knowledge and skills all play a role in determining men's level of involvement with their children. (See Pleck, 1997 for review of demographic correlates of father involvement.) Men's relationships with their family of origin. The quality of relationship that fathers develop with their own mothers and fathers has been viewed as a possible determinant...

Implications of Father Involvement for Childrens Development

Three types of approaches to the issue of the impact of father involvement on children's social, emotional, and cognitive development can be distinguished. First, in a modern variant of the earlier father-absence theme, sociologists, in particular, have recently examined the impact of nonresident fathers' frequency and quality of contact on children's development. In contrast to this paternal deprivation approach, a second strategy examines the impact of paternal enhancement. This approach asks...

Fathers and Family Variation

One of the clear advances of the past decade is recognition of the importance of individual differences in children one of the next advances will be the recognition of individual differences among families and fathers. Recognition of individual variability across families implies the necessity of expanding sampling procedures. In spite of demands for a greater awareness of family diversity, the range of family types that are studied is still relatively narrow. Although progress has been made in...

Consequences of Fatherhood for Men Themselves

Becoming a father has an impact on a man's own psychological development and well-being. As Parke (1981, p. 9) noted, the father-child relationship is a two-way process and children influence their fathers just as fathers alter their children's development. Three aspects of this issue have been examined (1) marital relationships, (2) work and occupational issues, and (3) societal generativity (to borrow Snarey's, 1993, phrase). Impact on marital relationships. Perhaps most attention has been...

Biological Factors in Paternal Behavior

It has long been recognized that females undergo a variety of hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth that may facilitate maternal behavior. Rosenblatt (1969, 1995, in Vol. 2 of this Handbook), using the rat as an experimental model, showed that hormonal changes elicited maternal behavior, while other studies showed similar effects for human mothers (Fleming, Ruble, Krieger, and Wong, 1997). It was long assumed that hormones play an unimportant role in paternal behavior because a...

Changing Societal Conditions as Determinants of Father Child Relationships

A number of society-wide changes in the United States have produced a variety of shifts in the nature of early family relationships. Fertility rates and family size have decreased, the percentage of women in the workforce has increased, the timing of onset of parenthood has shifted, divorce rates have risen, and the number of single-parent families has increased (for reviews see Furstenberg and Cherlin, 1991 Hernandez, 1993 Marsiglio, 1998). In this subsection, the effects of two of these...

Introduction

Close your eyes and allow the images evoked by this word to come into focus. What comes to your mind Images of a woman with a child Images of your idea of an ideal mother Images of your mother Maybe the image you have is of a special person who mothered you at different times in your life Regardless of the image you create in your mind, it is most likely a powerful image, spawning intense feelings of love, adoration, fear, sadness, or even rage. Continue to hold the...

Family Factors

Individual factors are not the only determinants of father involvement. Family-level variables including maternal attitudes concerning father involvement and the maritial relationship are both family-level factors that require examination. Maternal attitudes Mother as gatekeeper. Consistent with a family systems view, maternal attitudes need to be considered as a determinant of paternal participation in childcare. In spite of advances in women's participation in the workplace, many women still...

Contextual Issues

Greater attention needs to be paid to the role of context in determining father-child relationships. How do father-child interaction patterns shift between home and laboratory settings and across different types of interaction contexts such as play, teaching, and caregiving Moreover, it is important to consider the social as well as the physical context. Recognition of the embeddedness of fathers in family contexts is critical, and, in turn, conceptualizing families as embedded in a variety of...

Monitoring Secular Trends

There is a continuing need to monitor secular trends and to describe their impact on father-child interaction patterns (Coltrane and Parke, 1998 Parke and Stearns, 1993). Secular change is complex and clearly does not affect all individuals equally or all behavior patterns to the same extent. In fact, it is a serious oversimplification to assume that general societal trends can isomorphically be applied across all individual fathers and families. Moreover, better guidelines are necessary to...

Capacity For Mothering

Others have studied development of the capacity for mothering. Lederman (1984) studied the paradigm shift she claims a woman must make from her perception as woman without child to woman with child. Lederman's (Lederman, Lederman, Workk, and McCann, 1978) original study of women in labor prompted her to do further work on women's adaptation during pregnancy. Finding that there were women who demonstrated behavioral and physiological correlates of stress during labor that prolonged stage two of...

Contents of Volume Being and Becoming a Parent

About the Authors in Volume 3 xxv Kathryn E. Barnard and JoAnne E. Solchany 3 Chapter 3 Coparenting in Diverse Family Systems James McHale, Inna Khazan, Pauline Erera, Tamir Rotman, 75 Wendy DeCourcey, and Melanie McConnell Marsha Weinraub, Danielle L. Horvath, and Marcy B. Gringlas 109

Preparing For Motherhood

Through their intimate involvement with women's childbearing experiences, nurses have historically been witnesses to women becoming mothers from physical, psychological, and social perspectives. Over the past four decades, nurses, especially Rubin (1967a, 1967b, 1977, 1984) and Mercer (1981, 1985), have captured the development of mothering through empirical studies. The primary process involved is attaining the maternal role, which includes the development of maternal identity and role...

Conclusions

Information from the childcare study by the National Institute of Child Health and Development has demonstrated application of the concept Hrdy labels as allomothers (1999). Allomothering is shared mothering, common in both human and animal species. It is a variation in mothering that includes all persons who mother or help to mother the child, including (but not limited to) the mother's mate, extended family, peers, and neighbors. Allomothering helps to spread out the cost and responsibility...

Unit of Analysis

Current work clearly recognizes the importance of considering fathers from a family systems perspective. However, our conceptual analysis of dyadic and triadic units of analysis is still limited (Barrett and Hinde, 1988 Parke, 1988 McHale et al., 2002). Considerable progress has been made in describing the behavior of individual interactants (e.g., mother, father, child) within dyadic and, to a lesser extent, triadic settings, but less progress has been achieved in developing a language for...

Chapter Parenting Girls and Boys

Chapter 8 Parenting Twins and the Genetics of Parenting Hugh Lytton with Lin Gallagher 227 Chapter 9 Child Temperament and Parenting Samuel P. Putnam, Ann V. Sanson, and Mary K. Rothbart 255 Chapter 10 Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families David M. Brodzinsky and Ellen Pinderhughes 279 Jeffrey Haugaard and Cindy Hazan 313 Chapter 12 Parenting Children Born Preterm Susan Goldberg and Barbara DiVitto 329 Chapter 13 Parenting Children with Mental Retardation Chapter 14 Parents of...

Competence Versus Performance

The lower level of father involvement in caregiving and other forms of interaction does not imply that fathers are less competent than mothers to care for infants and children. Competence can be measured in a variety of ways One approach is to measure the parent's sensitivity to infant cues in the feeding context. Success in caregiving, to a large degree, depends on the parent's ability to correctly read or interpret the infant's behavior so that the parent's own behavior can be regulated to...

Quantitative Assessments of Father Involvement in Intact Families

The extent to which fathers in intact families participate in childcare needs to be distinguished from the level of involvement of fathers who are not coresident with their children for a variety of reasons, including divorce or out-of-wedlock births. In fact, this conceptual distinction reflects the contradictory trends in the fathering literature that Furstenberg 1988, p. 193 has characterized as the two faces of fatherhood. On the one hand, fathers seem to be increasing their involvement and...

About the Authors in Volume

ALLHUSEN is a Research Associate in the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, School of Social Ecology, the University of California at Irvine. She earned a B.S. at Duke University and a M.A. and Ph.D. at Cornell University. She is a Co-Principal Investigator on the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. She is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Research in Child Development, and the National Association for the Education of...

Is There a Universal Father Play Style

Some cross-cultural studies support the generality of this pattern of mother-father differences in play style. Parents in England and Australia show similar gender differences Russell and Russell, 1987 Smith and Daglish, 1977 . However, other evidence suggests that this pattern of mother-father differences in play style may be, in part, culture bound. Specifically, neither in Sweden Lamb, Frodi, Hwang, and Frodi, 1982 nor among Israeli kibbutz families Sagi et al., 1985 were there clear...