1 Rycus,J.S.and R.C. Hughes. Field Guide to Child Welfare. In Attachment, Separation, and Placement (chapter VIII). Washington, D.C.: Child Welfare League of America, 1998.

2 Ainsworth, M.D.S., M.C. Blehar, E.Waters, and S.Wall. Patterns of Attachment:A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1978.

3 Main, M.,and E. Hesse. Parents' Unresolved Traumatic Experiences Are Related to Infant Disorganized Attachment Status: Is Frightened and/or Frightening Parental Behavior the Linking Mechanism? In Attachment in the Preschool Years (pp. 161-182), edited by M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti,and E.M. Cummings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

4 van IJzendoorn,M.H.,S.Goldberg,P.M. Kroonenberg,and O.J. Frenkel.The Relative Effects of Maternal and Child Problems on the Quality of Attachment: A Meta-Analysis of Attachment in Clinical Samples. Child Development 63:840-858,1992.

5 Poehlmann,J.An Attachment Perspective on Grandparents Raising Their Very Young Grandchildren: Implications for Intervention and Research. Infant Mental Health Journal 24:149-173,2003.

Relationship pathways for children who initially have an insecure attachment

Problematic path The broken line indicates a disruption in the relationship.

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