Months

• Rapid growth in size— baby's weight at birth has nearly doubled

• Babies begin to eat solid foods and fruit juices

• Babies grab at things and hold onto objects, like rattles

• Vision improves; reaches 20/20 by end of this period

• The ability to see color increases dramatically

• Babies can roll over from tummy to back and from back to tummy

• Babies can sit with support; some can sit without support

• Babies begin to understand that they can cause simple things to happen (for example, if the child drops her bottle, someone often comes and picks it up)

• Infants become interested in their environment and like to do fun things over and over

• Babies begin to do things with a purpose, but they do not plan ahead

• Babies look for things that move (for example, they look down if a toy or spoon drops)

• Babies at this age do not usually look for things that are hidden

• Babies smile and laugh to show happiness

• Exchange between baby and caregiver is especially important; babies learn to respond and show excitement

• Babies are very interested in faces and emotional expressions shown in faces

• Infants are beginning to engage in a "dance"or turn-taking with adults (e.g., the baby makes a sound, the caregiver responds, and the baby then takes a turn making a sound)

• Babies recognize and prefer their familiar caregivers

• Babies begin to remember sounds and their meanings, especially their own name

• Infants begin vocalizing; first ooohs and aaaahs; then with consonants (e.g., babababa);then they begin babbling parts of words

• Infants begin imitating speech sounds such as "baba"or "dada"but they do not use these sounds as real words yet

• Babies turn toward loud sounds

• Infants blow bubbles or make raspberry sounds,just for the fun of it

Physical and motor development

Cognitive development

Social and emotional development

Communication and language development

6 months to 1 year

• Babies often are beginning to sleep through the night

• Babies get their first teeth

• Height and weight increase dramatically

• Babies can stand up while holding on to something for support

• Most babies learn how to crawl (although some infants go right to walking without ever crawling)

• Babies can grasp objects with thumb and finger (pincer grasp)

• They like to eat soft finger foods and sit in a highchair

• Infants can turn pages of board books and put objects in containers

Babies do more things with a purpose and they keep trying to get things they want

They can solve many problems using their motor skills, such as passing an object from one hand to the other to explore it better.

Infants begin to search for things if they go out of sight (object permanence)

Babies store things in their short-term and long-term memory and can use this information

Infants may imitate care-givers'actions or activities and begin to understand simple instructions

Children may seem fearful of strangers

Emotions are developing and are seen in a baby's face and body language—joy, fear, anger, and surprise

Babies like to play social games like peekaboo or pat-a-cake; they like caregivers to repeat these games over and over

Infants initiate more games with their caregivers and enjoy taking turns in simple games

Babies learn to expect what happens next and they especially like routines

Babies love to hear music and singing; they respond especially well to familiar songs and lullabies

Children recognize and imitate basic sounds of language

Infants combine syllables into word-like sounds

Children may point or gesture to communicate wants and needs (e.g., pointing to bottle or cup when they want it)

Babies can wave goodbye

By the end of this period, they may begin to use several real words, such as saying "dada"or "mama" to the right parent

Infants can respond to their own names

Infants begin to understand what the word "no" means; but that doesn't mean that infants will stop doing something

1 to 1.5 years

• Rapid growth continues— on average, weight has tripled since birth

• Brain growth is rapid

• Toddlers are learning to stand and walk alone

• They can throw a ball and pick up small objects

Toddlers are curious and begin to experiment with their environment

Toddlers can follow an object in the distance and can judge the location in comparison to themselves

Toddlers learn by doing and watching

Familiar caregivers are crucial because trust is developing

With help, children develop confidence in exploring their environment and meeting other individuals

Feelings of pride develop, based on their new skills

Emotional highs and lows are common

Children speak first words by this time (usually objects and people, especially parents and familiar care-givers)

Children begin to understand many words, even more than they can say (e.g., ball is a big, round toy)

Points to pictures in books

Physical and motor development

Cognitive development

Social and emotional development

Communication and language development

2 to 3 years

• Children become much more slender looking as their proportions rapidly change

• Most children have 20 teeth

• Children can jump in place and run

• Can walk up steps easily

• A child clearly has a dominant hand used for drawing, throwing, pointing

• Potty training usually occurs

• Children can use a spoon and fork to feed themselves

Using language to solve problems greatly increases; less reliant on adult help for expressing themselves

Children solve problems very differently than adults and make certain errors (e.g., focus on one thing rather than many things at the same time)

Thinking is concrete (tied to the here and now)

Children learn colors, shapes, the alphabet,and how to count

Can name their body parts

Can help dress and undress themselves

Begin to learn rules and expectations for behavior; these are influenced by what they observe in their families and daycare

Children begin to regulate or control their own emotions based on interactions and relationships with others

Children develop complex emotions like pride, shame, guilt,and embarrassment

They take pride in their new accomplishments

Enjoy games and taking turns; sharing is still hard

Vocabulary continues to grow

Sentences include combinations of objects and action words

Children understand that many different words can be used to describe the same thing

Children enjoy and remember having stories read to them

Understand more abstract concepts, like "another" or "later" or opposites

Begin to ask "why"about many things

4 to 5 years

• Children have good control

• Children learn to attach

• Children develop positive

• Children's sentences are

over stopping and turning

meaning to a variety of

and negative emotions for a

made up of four or five

their bodies

symbols such as mementos

variety of situations

words

• Fine motor development,

• Children can talk about

• Children can adjust their

• Comprehension is

including drawing,is

people and things that are

behaviors based on the

increasing, but children

improving

not physically present (e.g.,

understanding that others

often misunderstand the

• Able to balance on one foot

past events and memories);

have wants and goals that

complicated language of

briefly

however, sometimes

may differ from their own

adults

• Potty training is complete

memories are influenced by conversation

• Children can begin to

• Most of children's speech

for most children

control their true feelings,

can be understood

• Children can throw overhand and underhand

• Can brush teeth and dress self as ways of showing self

depending on the social context

• Children can carry on conversations

and they can catch a ball

competence

• Pretend play is very

• Children love to hear stories

well

important

and they can tell parts of stories

Physical and motor

Social and emotional

Communication and

development

Cognitive development

development

language development

5 to 7 years

• Able to balance on one foot without support

• Brain size is nearly that of an adult's,although many parts of brain continue to develop into adulthood

• All teeth are in place;baby teeth start to fall out

• Writing skills and other fine motor skills improve

Children learn how to solve problems in many academic areas (e.g., math, reading, science)

Children are able to follow directions and solve problems, but they can't explain the process if asked

Can discuss past, present and future

Can plan for future in limited way

Children are developing high standards for self and contributing to self-esteem

Children become more interested in their peers; friendships are very important

Moral reasoning becomes more complex

Children often express empathy when others show distress

Imaginative play is very important

Children's sentences are more complicated and involve more words; they are able to put several thoughts into sentences that make sense

Children begin to respond to what other people say in conversations

Children often engage in private conversations with themselves

Can tell stories (real and pretend)

7 to 8 years

• Grip strength increases

• Children can throw a ball a far distance

• Accuracy and balance improve

• Interest and skill in organized games and sports develops

• Children can tell someone about the many different problem solving strategies they use

• Thinking is more abstract and complex

• Planning for the future increases

• Children learn that they can have different feelings for the same situation;they understand positive and negative feelings can be associated with each

• Peer friendships continue to be very important;they compare self to peers

• Children learn that one word can have several meanings

• Understanding of language rules are more developed

• Children are learning that writing is another way they can communicate their thoughts

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