Therapeutic Interventions

1. Regularly hold family discussions that focus on different jobs and professions available in the community, nation, and world. (1, 2, 3)

1. Ask the parents to brainstorm with their children the various reasons why they and other adults work and assign the children to discuss their ideas with several employed family members.

2. Advise the parents to raise their children's career awareness by holding discussions about various career opportunities citing examples from television, books, magazines, and newspapers.

3. Instruct the parents to enlist their children's help in creating

2. Positively involve the children in the parents' own career experiences through discussion and modeling. (4, 5, 6)

3. Verbalize the connection between regular attendance, academic progress, social skill development and excellent work habits in school and in extracurricular activities and future success in the workplace. (7, 8, 9)

an occupational family history (or complete the "Career Family Tree" activity from the Parenting Skills Homework Planner by Knapp).

4. Advise the parents of their position as primary teacher and career role model and encourage them to relate personal stories and work experiences that will positively shape their children's knowledge and attitudes toward their own future career decisions.

5. Assign the parents to participate in a "Take Your Child to Work Day" or job-shadowing opportunity and to actively engage their child in the experience by allowing them to create a product, wear a uniform, or be involved in an actual work process.

6. Assign the parents to take several actual or virtual parent-child field trips to explore community, national, or worldwide businesses.

7. Encourage the parents to emphasize the crucial connection between school performance and future success in their child's career choices by detailing how specific curriculum is used in the workplace (e.g., math facilitates money management, reading facilitates following directions, writing facilitates communication).

8. Instruct the parents to relate personal experiences detailing how education played an

4. Arrange for aptitude and interest testing for the child and discuss the results with the child. (10, 11)

5. Establish future life goals and expectations with each child. (12, 13)

6. Regularly affirm each child for his/her special interests and abilities. (14, 15, 16)

important role in their own career paths.

9. Assign the parents to brainstorm with their children the personal qualities required to work cooperatively with others (e.g., speaking and listening with respect, problem solving, promptness).

10. Advise the parents to consult the school regarding aptitude and interest tests available at various grade levels and discuss how the test results may relate to the child's future career decisions.

11. Assign the parents to explore Web sites with their children that offer career information (e.g., Education World: Great Sites for Teaching About . . . Preparing for the Future, http://www.education -world.com/a_sites/sites076 .shtml.

12. Encourage the parents to begin a journal or portfolio for each child in the family that details important demographic and personal data (e.g., early childhood information, health history, school information) and to actively involve the child in its maintenance.

13. Ask the parents to work with each child to create an ongoing list of future goals and aspirations to be entered in the child's career journal or portfolio.

14. Encourage the parents to focus on the individual interests and abilities of each child and to

7. Maintain regular contact with the school while monitoring and reinforcing the children's academic progress. (17, 18)

Participate in and promote career awareness programs for youth of all ages at school and in the community. (19)

emphasize personal best achievement rather than competition to prevent sibling and peer rivalry.

15. Assign the parents to engage each child in at least one extracurricular activity that supports and promotes that child's special interest or ability.

16. Instruct the parents to help each child to develop self-awareness through discussions of feelings, special interests and abilities, or to participate with the child in an Internet survey that helps assess their personal traits, values, and the effects of their personal choices on their future (e.g., Making Choices for Life, http://library.thinkquest.org /J001709).

17. Assign the parents to monitor their children's school attendance, punctuality, and academic achievement, to recognize progress and achievement in these areas and to offer guidance, encouragement, and discipline where necessary.

18. Instruct the parents to discuss progress reports, grade cards, conference input, and the results of tests and evaluations with the children immediately to understand their perspective and to emphasize the family's focus upon quality education.

19. Assign the parents to become involved in the career awareness program at their children's school by volunteering to participate in field trips to area

9. Encourage responsible behavior in the home by assigning age-appropriate jobs and chores to each child. (20, 21)

10. Attend school, church, and community programs that celebrate ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic diversity. (22, 23)

11. Create a list of a wide variety of jobs and careers and emphasize their unique contribution to the society as a whole. (24, 25, 26)

businesses, or by developing a career awareness day.

20. Emphasize the important connection between responsible behavior at home and success at school and in future occupations by instructing the parents to assign age-appropriate tasks and chores to the children at home.

21. Assign the parents to promote responsible decision making from their children by asking each child to decide for themselves when an issue is non-critical and to decide within the limitations and guidance provided by the parents for more important issues.

22. Encourage the parents to prepare their children for the diversity they will experience in their future workplaces by participating in multicultural events sponsored by various social, cultural, and ethnic groups in the community.

23. Assign the parents to expose their children to multilingual diversity by learning a foreign language as a family project.

24. Advise the parents to create a list in a family career journal of the many careers that draw each child's interest and to define these careers by listing their educational and training prerequisites and indicating their contribution to society.

25. Assign the parents to join their child in playing the Career Interest Game (Holland,

12. Encourage the children through discussion and observation to explore various jobs previously designated to a specific gender, culture, or socioeconomic group.(27, 28)

13. Read about, discuss, and utilize career-based technology in the home, school, and community. (29, 30, 31)

(http://career.missouri.edu /holland/) to match interests and skills with similar careers.

26. Introduce the concept of career pathways by having the parents view a career cluster chart of broad occupational categories (e.g., Career Pathways by the Michigan Occupational Information System [MOIS] or The Occupational Cluster Packet from the Missouri Comprehensive Guidance Model [Gysbers]);

ask the parents to review the career categories with their children, eliciting areas of interest.

27. Advise the parents to reduce biases and job discrimination by encouraging their children to consider jobs previously considered specific to a particular gender, culture, or socioeconomic group (e.g., doctor, engineer, pilot, nurse, firefighter).

28. Assist the parents in assessing their hidden biases that might translate into stereotyping their children into prescribed gender roles and to guard against this type of negative classification by involving the children in household tasks, activities, and outings based on interest and age-appropriateness, rather than gender.

29. Advise the parents to remain current in their knowledge of work-related technology (e.g., computers, Internet, distance learning, robotics) and to share

14. Develop an ongoing plan with each child for a successful school to career transition. (32, 33, 34)

15. Assist the college-bound child in selecting an appropriate college. (35, 36, 37)

their expertise with their children.

30. Encourage the parents to enroll their children in after school or summer programs offered by area schools, colleges, and businesses that teach technical skills, use of office machines, and other occupational tools.

31. Ask the parents to strongly encourage their high school children to enroll in core curriculum and recommended electives to acquire skills in technical areas of career preparation.

32. Encourage the parents to begin career planning with their children at a young age (or invite the parents to complete the "School to Career Diary" activity in the Parenting Skills Homework Planner by Knapp).

33. Assign the parents to explore available career-based instruction (CBI) programs with their children that offer school credit for actual work experience.

35. Instruct the parents of noncollege bound high school children to encourage participation in a career/technical curriculum to acquire entry level job skills in a trade, technical, medical technician, or business employment cluster.

3 5. Advise parents of high school children who have completed core requirements to earn college credit by taking advanced placement classes from local colleges or by using online resources or distance learning facilities.

16. Verbalize and model the importance of lifelong learning to ensure continuous employment and enhance the quality of life. (38)

36. Assign the parents to work with their college-bound child to complete a search of colleges using an Internet tool (e.g., My Dream Explorer created by MOIS) to identify several colleges or training programs which meet specific career, financial, and geographical requirements.

37. Ask the parents to collaborate with their college-bound child to select several colleges that meet the personal goals and career criteria from a college resource guide (e.g., The Fiske Guide to Colleges 2005 by Fiske).

38. Assign the parents to attend with their children a community- or school-sponsored class designed to explore the future of careers and the world of work; ask them to discuss how future occupations will vary from today's careers.

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