1. Lack effective parenting strategies and the ability to set reasonable limits for the child.
2. Verbalize unclear boundary definitions and fail to differentiate between the parent and the child's needs, interests, and problems.
3. Place pressure on the child to achieve or excel, creating an anxiety-ridden parent/child relationship based on conditional love.
4. Maintain low expectations of and fail to reinforce the child's abilities and achievements.
5. Neglect the child's basic needs for food, shelter, nurturing, and guidance.
6. Overprotect the child, leading to dependency, low self-esteem, and a lack of responsible behavior in the child.
7. Use harsh and punitive discipline resulting in fearful, manipulative, self-protective behavior, and/or retaliation from the child.
8. Implement polarized approaches to parenting, creating isolation, confusion, triangulation, and hostility among family members.
9. Child lacks the ability to function independently at home, school, and in the community.
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