1. "Abstinence Education Faces An Uncertain Future," New York Times, July 18, 2007; Bearman, Peter, and Hannah Br├╝ckner, "Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges and First Intercourse," American Journal of Sociology, 106 (4), (January 2001), 859-912.

2. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. "Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues" (February 2002). Accessed March 22,2008, from www.teenpregnancy .org/resources/data/pdf/notjust.pdf

3. The Guttmacher Institute. "U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity" (September 2006). Available at

4. Abma, J.C. et al. "Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing, 2002, Vital and Health Statistics, 2004, Series 23, No. 24; Santelli, J.S., et al., Explaining Recent Declines in Adolescent Pregnancy in the United States: The Contribution of Abstinence and Improved Contraceptive Use" American Journal of Public Health (2007) 97(1), 1-7.

5. Study commissioned by U.S. Congress and conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. See

6. Darroch, J.E., J.J. Frost, and S. Singh. "Teenage Sexual and Reproductive Behavior in Developed Countries: Can More Progress Be Made?" Occasional Report (New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 2001), No. 3.

7. Darroch, J.E. et al. Changing emphases in sexuality education in U.S. public secondary schools, 1988-1999, Family Planning Perspectives (2000) 32(5), 204-211,265.

9. Reisser, Paul C. Focus on the Family Parents' Guide to Teen Health: Raising Physically & Emotionally Healthy Teens (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1997).

10. Martens Miller, Patricia. Sex Is Not a Four-Letter Word! Talking Sex with Your Children Made Easier (New York: Crossroad, 1994), p. 66-68.

11. Quoted at &ext=marryolder, based on studies by Evelyn Lehrer at the University of Illinois, Chicago.

14. Richardson and Schuster, p. 288.

15. Accessed March 5,2008, from .htm#II

16. Ganzfried, Rabbi Shlomo in the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (1870).

17. Quoted in Rizvi, Sayyid Muhammad, "Marriage and Morals in Islam" (Ontario, Canada: Islamic Education & Information Centre, 1990).

18. He then begs forgiveness from those Christians who find his relatively reasonable attitude "inflammatory." The full text is at www.focusonyourchild .com/develop/art1/A0000553.html

19. Miles, Herbert, Sexual Understanding Before Marriage (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000).

20. James, Lawrence, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (London: St. Martin's Griffin, 1997).

21. Quoted in Asimov, Eric, "Can Sips at Home Prevent Binges?" New York Times, March 26, 2008.

23. Hawkins, Dr. David B. "How Can I Help My Depressed Spouse?"Accessed April 23,2008, from


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