Notes

1. Darling, Nancy. "Parenting Style and Its Correlates." Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education EDO-PS-99-3, March 1999. Accessed May 2,2008, from www.athealth.com/Practitioner/ceduc/ parentingstyles.html

2. Grusec, J.E., and J. J. Goodnow, "Impact of Parental Discipline on the Child's Internalization of Values: A Reconceptualization of Current Points of View," Developmental Psychology, 30 (1994). Cited in Dobrin, Arthur, Ethical People and How They Get to Be That Way (in press), chapter 5.

4. Quoted in Pearson, Beth, "The Art of Creating Ethics Man," The Herald (Scotland), January 23,2006.

5. Pearson, ibid.

6. Quoted by permission from Kidder, Rushworth M., Moral Courage (Institute for Global Ethics All rights reserved). This list first appears on page 10.

7. At one point in the movie Jesus Camp, a child of fundamentalist parents says that Galileo was right to renounce his scientific findings for religious reasons.

8. Quoted by permission. The complete list is at www.ethicalstl.org/ sunschool.shtml and in the first Appendix. Accessed May 2,2008.

9. While there are concerns that Kohlberg's research is limited by its methodology and by its emphasis on reasoning about justice, it is undeniably useful in understanding the many levels and facets of moral understanding. For further exploration of these stages and their implications, see Dobrin, Arthur, Ethical People and How They Got That Way (in press), Chapter 3.

10. Callaghan, T., P. Rochat, A. Lillard, M.L. Claux, H. Odden, S. Itakura, S. Tapanya, and S. Singh, "Synchrony in the Onset of Mental State Reasoning: Evidence from 5 Cultures," Psychological Science. (At time of writing this article is still in press, and available online at www.faculty.virginia.edu/ early-social-cognition-lab/reprints/reprints.html. Accessed May 11, 2008.) Children in numerous cultures, both schooled and unschooled, were studied.

11. Kohn, pp. 34-36; Faber and Mazlish, pp. 174-176 (complete citations in Resources).

12. De Waal, Frans, Peacemaking Among Primates (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1990), p. 270.

13. Spring, Janice Abrahms, How Can I Forgive You? (New York: HarperCollins, 2005), pp. 51-117.

15. Kohn, Alfie, Unconditional Parenting (New York: Atria Books, 2005), p. 204.

16. Dobrin, Chapter 3.

17. Pearson, Beth, "The Art of Creating Ethics Man," The Herald (Scotland), January 23,2006. Accessed February 15,2008, from www.humanism.org.uk/ site/cms/contentViewArticle.asp?article=2134

18. When I attended a lecture by Paul Rusesabagina, the person on whose story the movie Hotel Rwanda is based, an audience member asked him how he found the courage to protect and provide for the people he helped—sometimes at gunpoint. He replied that he was just being himself, a hotel manager, whose job was to take care of his guests. (Not surprisingly, his autobiography is titled An Ordinary Man. Proceeds of the book's sales are donated to a foundation that helps orphans and survivors of the Rwandan genocide.)

19. Adapted from the Camp Quest ethics curriculum. Used by permission.

20. This suggestion is inspired by Sen, Amartya, Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny (New York: W. W. Norton, 2007). The book is really an extended essay; it's 240 pages but they're small pages. Written by a humanist and Nobel-winning economist, it might be worth reading with some high-school-age children. An argument against a worldview that divides people into "boxes" defined by religion, it also includes some very interesting personal anecdotes and discussions of cultural history. Some people might find it too repetitive, so you might prefer to try finding it at the library.

21. That's Spanish for "one," Japanese for "book," Russian for "many," and French for "ideas."

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