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Memory Professor System

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Memory Professor System Summary

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5 Minute Learning Machine

Jack Singer the author of The advancement of learning guide, has also been involved in writing other books about certain tricks to learn in life. The product is a comprehensive, self-paced, user-friendly, enhanced-reading and advanced learning techniques program. The product is a program that gives you a chance to liberate the undiscovered brilliance unlocked inside of you. Get to experience a real phenomenal memory. This product does not entail techniques or a mechanistic experiment that reveals the study of and development of systems for improving and assisting the memory. The list goes on about what pending problems you can solve with this program. These problems include; Math problems- you can thus be able to solve a whole world of math-mystery. It entails the simple secret of how to avoid 20 percent of all math errors worth your time! business-mystery, and financial mysteries. All opened up from one simple change in your work habits. Minimal concentration do you wish to develop total concentration?. The guide issues you with a simple routine to help you get down to work instantly. You can then absorb huge amounts of information easily even in a room filled with howling children. The package comes in form of an e-book, acquired online. It is intended for men and women of ages. Read more here...

5 Minute Learning Machine Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Jack Singer
Official Website: www.5minutelearningmachine.com
Price: $27.00

Explanations for Abuse Related Autobiographical Memory Patterns Trauma and Cognitive Resources

One explanation for trauma-related autobiographical memory problems is that they reflect more general cognitive deficits caused by intrusive thoughts about traumatic experiences. Adults with histories of childhood trauma such as sexual or physical abuse frequently report having recurrent and intrusive negative thoughts about their victimization experiences (e.g., Kuyken & Brewin, 1994). Individuals who experience intrusive thoughts characterize them as unpleasant and report engaging in effortful attempts to avoid them (Kuyken & Brewin, 1994). Concerted efforts to block intrusive thoughts, however, are typically unsuccessful and often lead to even more frequent intrusions (Kuyken & Brewin, 1994, 1995 Wegner, Schneider, Carter, & White, 1987). Kukyen and Brewin (1995) have argued that this combination of intrusive memories and efforts to avoid them drains limited storage and processing resources in working memory. The depletion of cognitive resources, in turn, is thought to...

Autobiographical Memory in Child Sexual Abuse Victims Preliminary Findings

To examine issues of autobiographical memory for childhood events in adolescent and adult victims of child sexual abuse, we are currently conducting a study in which both autobiographical memory accuracy and specificity are examined (see Augusti et al., 2006 Block et al., 2006 Ogle et al., 2007). Among other questions, we are exploring whether child sexual abuse and PTSD are associated with more or less accurate autobiographical memory, and with more specific or more overgeneral autobiographical memory. To tap autobiographical memory in this study, the Semantic Autobiographical Memory Task (SAMT Meesters, Merckelbach, Muris, & Wessel, 2000) and the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI Kopelman, Wilson, & Baddeley, 1989) are administered. For the SAMT, participants are asked to recall semantic information from when they were in third grade. For the AMI, participants are asked to describe a specific memory from each of the following time periods prior to preschool, during...

Child Abuse History and Autobiographical Memory

There is considerable evidence in the clinical literature that exposure to traumatic experiences in childhood, particularly physical or sexual abuse, is linked to autobiographical memory disturbances in adulthood. Many adults who have experienced childhood trauma report gaps in their memories of childhood (e.g., Edwards, Fivush, Anda, Felitti, & Nordenberg, 2001 Herman & Schatzow, 1987). For instance, a study conducted by Edwards et al. (2001) indicated that adult men and women who retrospectively reported histories of child sexual or physical abuse were significantly more likely than other adults to report that there were large parts of their childhoods (after age 4) that they could not remember. Other work has shown that a self-reported history of sexual abuse is related to poorer recall of personal facts from childhood, such as the name of one's elementary school (Hunter & Andrews, 2002). The most consistent findings, however, relate to the ability to remember or report...

Early Autobiographical Memory and Early Overgeneral Memory

In considering the effects of trauma on autobiographical memory, it is first important to review what is known from research and theory about the emergence of this specific memory function. Many diverse lines of research converge to suggest that children's ability to form and verbally recall enduring memories of specific, personal events develops at approximately 2.5 to 3 years of age, with some 2-year-olds able to accurately remember events dating back to age 1 (Peterson, 2002). Memory in adults and older children for the period prior to approximately 2.5 to 3 years is thought to be characterized by a psychological phenomenon called infantile amnesia, the inability to remember early childhood events. We know of few studies, however, that have examined the emergence of autobiographical memory in maltreated young children (for exceptions, see Eisen, Goodman, Qin, Davis, & Crayton, 2007 Eisen, Qin, Goodman, & Davis, 2002). Despite general consensus among developmental researchers...

Specificity of Autobiographical Memory

The growing body of literature on the specificity of autobiographical recall is important to the study of trauma and autobiographical memory functioning. As mentioned earlier, overgeneral autobiographical memory, first reported by Williams and Broadbent (1986), refers to autobiographical memory reports that are categorical in nature and lacking in detail and vividness. Such overgeneral autobiographical memory has been found in individuals with a wide range of psychological disorders (e.g., major depression, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, acute stress disorder Rubin, Feldman, & Beckham, 2004 Wessel, Merckelbach, & Dekkers, 2002). The opposite of overgeneral memory is memory specificity. Investigations of autobiographical memory specificity have been conducted with adolescents and adults who experienced a traumatic event during childhood. Evidence for Williams' (1996) proposal that the experience of adverse events during childhood may disrupt the normal development of...

Accuracy of Autobiographical Memory

Albeit scant in number, investigations of autobiographical memory accuracy in adults and children who have suffered child abuse point both to memory deficits as well as advantages. Evidence of a detrimental effect of trauma on autobiographical memory functioning is drawn from research with adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Edwards, Fivush, Anda, Felitti, and Nordenberg (2001) described autobiographical memory loss (i.e., gaps in memory) for childhood experiences in a nonclinical adult population, with sexually abused and physically abused participants twice as likely to self-report holes in their autobiographical memory compared to nonabused participants. Experiences of repeated abuse, abuse by a relative, and more severe abuse were especially powerful predictors of self-reported memory loss (see also Brown et al., 2007). Hunter and Andrews (2002) found autobiographical memory deficits for personal semantic childhood facts (e.g., names of friends and teachers, schools attended,...

Cognitive Perspectives

In the second part, Cognitive Perspectives, the authors examine memory for traumatic experiences and whether those experiences result in fundamental changes in children's memory development. In Chapter 4, Greenhoot, Bunnell, Curtis, and Beyer examine autobiographical memory for family violence using longitudinal data. These authors examine what is known about changes in autobiographical memory development and memory functioning that may be brought about by chronic exposure to stressful events such as abuse. Following this review, Greenhoot and colleagues present findings from their own research on these issues, integrating findings from their longitudinal study of children exposed to various forms of domestic violence and using these data to disentangle competing explanations concerning the mechanisms underlying these memory dysfunctions. Chapter 5, by Ogle, Block, Harris, Culver, Augusti, Timmer, Urquiza, and Goodman, examines the claim that childhood trauma leads to a specific type...

Oral Versus Written Stories

Therefore, I cannot guarantee the stories in this book are as I originally heard them or initially developed them. Nor can I guarantee that the way you read them is the way I told them to my last client, or will tell them to the next. May I suggest you see in the stories I have written their themes, ideas or meaning rather than the exact words with which they have been expressed in this format. Look for the therapeutic message in each story rather than trying to memorize or relate it to a child verbatim. These stories were not designed to be told and retold as an actor may faithfully memorize and reiterate the words ofa playwright. I hope you will allow the tales to evolve and, along with them, your own stories and storytelling skills. Stories emerge from within us, they communicate about our own experiences and, in turn, help define us as individuals. In stories it is possible for us, and our young clients, to find happiness and well-being, as well as the means for creating and...

Can the computer help my daughter learn a new language

While there's no substitute for real-life learning with a native speaker, the computer can provide a fun variation on classroom learning. Learn-a-language CD-ROMs give kids opportunities to memorize vocabulary and grammatical constructs, imitate native speakers, take part in virtual conversations, and work at comprehension. Foreign-language sites on the World Wide Web are also good places to practice and play.

Learning and life skills camp

Description Many academic programs are offered to help students improve their study habits, memorize information faster, and write with greater ease. Other courses teach students how to study and take SAT tests so that their scores will improve. Along with study skills, the camp also helps students build their self-esteem and gives them the motivation needed to take risks as they embark on such outdoor activities as walking on a tightrope or experiencing other adventures.

Neurohormonal Modulation of Memory

Glucocorticoids also affect learning and memory. Elevations of glu-cocorticoids within the physiological range result in reversible deficits in memory function in animals (Bodnoff et al., 1995 Oitzl & de Kloet, 1992) as well as human subjects (de Quervain, Roozendaal, Nitsch, Mc-Gaugh, & Hock, 2000 Kirschbaum, Wolf, May, Wippich, & Hellhammer, 1996 Lupien, Gillin, & Hauger, 1999 Lupien et al., 1997 Lupien et al., 2002 Newcomer, Craft, Hershey, Askins, & Bardgett, 1994 Newcomer et al., 1999 Wolf, Schommer, Hellhammer, McEwen, & Kirschbaum, 2001). Glucocorticoids released during stress, possibly acting through the hippocampus, may explain in part the acutely reversible as well as chronic effects that stress has on declarative memory (de Kloet et al., 1999 Kirschbaum et al., 1996 Porter & Landfield, 1998 Wolf, 2003). Greater deficits are seen in younger subjects in comparison to older subjects, hypothesized to be secondary to age-related decreases in glucocor-ticoid...

Memory for Nontrauma Related Information in Traumatized Populations

A series of word lists presented over five trials and was used to examine free recall (after both short and long delays), cued recall, and recognition memory performance. Findings indicated that participants with trauma histories and PTSD demonstrated significantly worse performance on these explicit memory tasks. Specifically, Holocaust survivors with PTSD had significantly lower scores than non-trauma-exposed controls on measures of free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory. Moreover, PTSD Holocaust survivors performed worse than non-PTSD Holocaust survivors in free recall memory. Memory performance for the combat veterans showed similar patterns. Combat veterans with PTSD performed significantly worse than non-trauma-exposed controls on measures of total learning, short-delay free and cued recall, long-delay free and cued recall, and recognition memory. The authors of this study noted that the participants included older adults (mean age 69 years) and that the detrimental...

Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Family Violence

The clinical literature is whether exposure to abuse during childhood also leads to disturbances in autobiographical memory development, as clinicians report that many adult survivors of child abuse have difficulty remembering large portions of their childhoods (e.g., Herman & Schatzow, 1987). Consistent with these observations, there is mounting empirical evidence of autobiographical memory impairments in adults who report childhood histories of abuse or other traumas (e.g., Henderson, Hargreaves, Gregory, & Williams, 2002 Hermans et al., 2004 Kuyken & Brewin, 1995). The clinical significance of autobiographical memory problems has served as the impetus for much of this research. It is generally agreed that our self-concepts and our relationships with other people are built, at least in part, on our memories of our past experiences (Fivush, Haden, & Reese, 1996 Fivush & Vasudeva, 2002 McAdams, 1993 Thorne, 2000). Moreover, autobiographical memory problems have been...

Abuse and the Accessibility of Childhood Memories

In the first investigation of trauma-related memory problems in our laboratory, Johnson, Greenhoot, Glisky, and McCloskey (2005) examined the extent to which both early and recent abuse experiences, as well as current depression, predicted adolescents' memory functioning during Year 6 of the longitudinal study. The sample consisted of a subset of 134 participants whose autobiographical memory assessments were transcribed and available for analysis and whose reports regarding family violence were corroborated by their mothers.1 The participants reported a broad range of family violence and abuse exposure, from no exposure to moderate exposure to highly frequent exposure. For both Year 1 and Year 6, we collapsed the indicators of mother- and child-directed violence into overall measures of the frequency of family violence reported at each interview, capping a few extreme outliers to prevent them from skewing the results. Because sexual abuse was only reported for a small number of these...

Trauma and Emotion Regulation

Number of specific memories they had produced on an AMT prior to the treatment. Furthermore, poor memory specificity has in fact been directly linked to difficulties in problem solving (Evans et al., 1992 Pollock & Williams, 2001 Raes et al., 2006 Williams, Barnhofer, Crane, & Duggan, 2006). Thus, depression may actually be an outcome, rather than a cause, of autobiographical memory difficulties. Although there seems to be a growing consensus in the literature that trauma-related memory problems reflect an emotion regulation style adopted during childhood, there are some unaddressed issues that bear on the plausibility of this explanation. First, this model has focused primarily on childhood trauma, and the role of recent or current stressors in autobiographical memory problems has not been addressed. Yet it seems possible that current stressors could elicit a more transient strategic response that involves avoiding details to control affect, thus mimicking the trait-like style...

Stress Effects on Memory

In essence, neural and behavioral development have an interdependent relationship that relies on reciprocal processing activities. Thus, one postulate is that if the process is somehow dramatically perturbed (either endogenously or exogenously), then the associated memory systems would take an altered developmental trajectory. Early damage to the hippocampus, including perinatal, results in a substantial loss of context-rich memory abilities (Bachevalier & Vargha-Khadem, 2005). High-dose prednisone treatment for children with asthma is associated with lower verbal memory skills than low-dose treatment (Bender, Lerner, & Poland, 1991). Given such findings, Nelson and Carver (1998) hypothesized that the developing nervous system is vulnerable to the deleterious chronic effects of stress on memory. Specifically, these investigators predicted that hippocampal-dependent memory should be negatively affected by substantial stress because of the effects of stress hormones on cell birth...

Memory for Trauma Related Information in Traumatized Populations

Such findings suggest that an attentional bias toward trauma-related information can result in better memory for such information. At times, trauma victims with PTSD evince better memory for trauma-related information than do nontraumatized controls at other times, trauma victims show deficits in memory compared to the nontraumatized controls, except when trauma-related information is to be remembered. Although these studies do not directly concern autobiographical memory retrieval, their findings may have implications for such memory processes.

Longitudinal Study of Domestic Violence

As their recollections of any abusive events that had been documented at Year 1. Although we have conducted extensive analyses of the teens' memories of childhood exposure to family violence per se (e.g., Green-hoot, McCloskey, & Glisky, 2005), it is the measures of autobiographical memory for childhood in general that are the focus of the investigations described in this chapter.

Making Children Into Competent Witnesses And Esplin

The emergence of autobiographical memory A social cultural developmental theory. Psychological Review, 111, 486-514. Ornstein, P A., Haden, C. A., & Hedrick, A. M. (2004). Learning to remember Social-communicative exchanges and the development of children's memory skills. Developmental Review, 24, 374-395.

Bremner J.d. 2001 . Gender Differences In Cognitive And Neural Correlates Of Remembrance Of Emotional Words.

L. (1987). Single-unit response of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus of freely moving cats. II. Adaptation to chronically presented stressful stimuli. Journal of Neuroscience, 7, 2844-2848. Abercrombie, H. C., Speck, N. S., & Monticelli, R. M. (2005). Endogenous cortisol elevations are related to memory facilitation only in individuals who are emotionally aroused. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 187-196. Alexander, K. W, Quas, J. A., Goodman, G. S., Ghetti, S., Edelstein, R. S., Redlich, A. D., et al. (2005). Traumatic impact predicts long-term memory for documented child sexual abuse. Psychological Science, 16, 33-40. Anderson, C. M., Teicher, M. H., Polcari, A., & Renshaw, P. F. (2002). Abnormal t2 relaxation time in the cerebellar vermis of adults sexually abused in childhood Potential role of the vermis in stress-enhanced risk for drug abuse. Psychoneuroen-docrinology, 27, 231-244. Arborelius, L., Owens, M. J., Plotsky, P. M.,...

ERP Waveforms and Memory

The P300 (also referred to as the P3b or classical P3), perhaps the most extensively studied ERP component, is a positive waveform that peaks between 300 and 900 ms after stimulus presentation, and in adults is typically maximal in electrode sites over the parietal lobe. This waveform is elicited by an infrequent stimulus presented in the context of an oddball paradigm and is believed to represent neural processes involved in context updating (i.e., updating one's representation of the current environment) or revising the contents of recognition or working memory (Donchin, 1981 Rugg, 1995). Source modeling of the P300 has localized its origin specifically to the hippocampal and parietal cortical regions, and possibly the temporal lobe as well (Nakajima, Miyamoto, & Kikuchi, 1994). Studies of individuals with physical lesions in the brain corroborate these findings, with damage to tissue in the temporal-parietal junction inducing a loss of the P300 waveform (e.g., Knight, 1990)....

Eliciting the Truth from Child Witnesses

Studies of the development of autobiographical memory show that younger children's impoverished recall, relative to older children and adults, may be due in part to limited retrieval skills, metalinguistic deficits, and immature narrative skills (for reviews see Gordon, Baker-Ward, & Ornstein, 2001 Nelson & Fivush, 2004 Ornstein, Haden, & Hedrick, 2004). Developmental differences in the selection and use of cognitive strategies, both for encoding and retrieval (see Schneider & Bjorklund, 1998 for review), affect children's ability to talk about past events, and therefore the amount of support they may need to help them describe the event completely. Encoding and retrieval strategies develop with age and experience, and the use of effective retrieval strategies is usually associated with increases in recall and reporting of information (Flavell, 1970 Ornstein et al., 2004). Young children may use strategic behaviors when explicitly instructed to do so but still not benefit...

ERP Studies of Rearing in Atypical Environments

Attachment systems have been theorized to be constructed to permit flexible responses to environmental circumstances, to influence and be influenced by emotion-regulation abilities, and to function through internal working models that children hold of themselves and of their relationships with others (Bowlby, 1969 1982 Bretherton, 1990 Cassidy, 1994 Sroufe, 1996). In their ERP investigations, Pollak and colleagues have strived to ascertain whether the activation of these mental representations, which could be characterized as involving memory processes (i.e., retrieval), may be reflected through physiological activity as well as behavior. Pollak and colleagues reasoned that the P3b (P300) ERP component, which is believed to reflect neural processes involved in the updating of representations in working memory, may be useful in illuminating the cognitive processes that accompany the encoding of salient emotional stimuli. Finally, the nonmaltreated group in the Cicchetti and Curtis...

Autobiographical and Overgeneral Memory in Adolescents and Adults

The theories reviewed so far focus mainly on the initial emergence or early stages of autobiographical memory in childhood. In the present chapter, we are primarily concerned with adolescents' and adults' autobiographical memory for childhood events, and thus theories of autobiographical memories in adolescents and adults are also relevant. Rubin (2006) has proposed the basic systems model. Taking this approach, Rubin contends that several basic systems are involved in autobiographical memory memory and imagery systems (e.g., explicit memory, search and retrieval processes, spatial imagery), language and narrative systems, sensory systems (e.g., vision, audition, olfaction), emotion and pain systems, and vestibular motor systems. In this model, each system is a separate network, and these networks interact to produce autobiographical memory (Rubin, 2006). Of interest for the present chapter, according to Rubin, emotions modulate memory encoding and recall. For individuals who have...

Normal Development of Cognition and the Brain

Normal memory formation involves encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Encoding refers to the laying down of the memory trace, consolidation is the process by which the memory goes from short-term to long-term storage, and retrieval is the process by which long-term memories are retrieved from storage (Schacter, 1996). Memories can be divided into explicit (also known as declarative), or available for conscious recall, and implicit (also known as procedural). Explicit memory includes recall of facts or lists, while implicit memory includes memory that is not accessed by conscious recall, such as procedural memories like riding a bike, as well as conditioned responses. Children do not develop the capacity for long-term autobiographical memory until 2 to 3 years of age (Bruce et al., 2005 Eacott & Crawley, 1998 Howe & Courage, 1993, 1997 Usher & Neisser, 1993). This coincides with the development of the ability to place events in the context of the who, what, and where of the...

Memory Its Systems and Their Development

The current zeitgeist holds that memory is an overall descriptor for multiple memory types and that several neurobiological systems underlie them (Eichenbaum, 2001 Schacter, 2000 Squire, 2004). One major type of memory is known as declarative (or explicit) memory, which refers to the capacity to consciously recall facts and events. Declarative memory is typically divided into semantic memory (i.e., facts about the world) and episodic memory (i.e., the capacity to reexperience an event in the context in which it originally occurred Tulving, 1983). This type of memory, which is representational in that the memories model the external world whether it be true or false, is the kind that is impaired in amnesia, and is dependent on structures in the medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalon. Laterally, semantic recall is centered more on left hippocampal activation, whereas autobiographical recall is more right-lateralized (Wheeler, Stuss, & Tulving, 1997). Historically,...

Discrete Emotions and Memory

In another line of work, evidence indicates that chronically fearful individuals evince attentional and memory biases consistent with this discrete emotional state. Clinically anxious people have been found to exhibit hypersensitivity to threat-related information. Mathews and Klug (1993), for instance, used an emotional Stroop paradigm to assess color-naming latencies (a sign of greater attention) for positive and negative threat-related words, for positive and negative words unrelated to threat, and for neutral words. Participants included patients with a variety of anxiety disorders and controls. Anxious patients took longer to name the colors of both positive and negative threat-related words (but not positive or negative words unrelated to threat) than to name the colors of neutral words. Selective retrieval of threatening information also has been found (though less consistently) in studies using implicit memory measures (for reviews see MacLeod & Mathews, 2004 Mineka,...

Attention to Trauma Related Information in Maltreated Populations

Studying maltreated children can provide crucial information about mechanisms that underlie emotional processing and, by extension, autobiographical memory. It has been proposed that, in certain respects, maltreated children process emotional cues differently than do nonmaltreated children (see Pollak, 2003, for review). Specifically, Pollak (2003) contends that the processing of negative emotions can be heightened in maltreated children because negative emotional signals in their home environments are prominent and or because children perceive evidence of threats in such signals. According to this view, abused children develop patterns of information processing that reflect priming for negative emotions. Overall, findings on attentional processing in child maltreatment victims generally (though not invariably) support the hypothesis that information that is particularly relevant to one's life concerns may attract more attentional resources or more automatic processing than...

Trauma and Hippocampal Function

Another explanation for trauma-related autobiographical memory problems is that they reflect more general memory deficits caused by the harmful physiologic effects of chronic or traumatic stress on the If hippocampal dysfunction is in fact one of the mechanisms involved in the autobiographical memory impairments that typify abuse victims, it seems likely that these autobiographical memory problems would be accompanied by a broad range of memory deficits. The hippocampus is thought to be central in the consolidation of verbal declarative memory traces (Bremner et al., 2003 Bremner, Vythilingam, Vermetten, Vaccarino, & Charney, 2004 Elzinga, Bakker, & Bremner, 2005 Squire, 1992), and it has also been implicated in the retrieval of declarative memories (de Quervain, Roozendaal, & McGaugh, 1998), implicit memory processes (Chun & Phelph, 1999), and spatial memory (Maguire, Frackowiak, & Frith, 1997). Thus individuals with trauma-related autobiographical memory problems...

Conclusions

Neurobiological studies have implications for the recall of abuse. Patients with abuse-related mental disorders have a wide range of memory impairments. At its most extreme, patients with early abuse and DID have a complete breakdown of autobiographical memory, making the accurate recall of personal life experiences more difficult. Patients with abuse-related mental disorders also have smaller hippocampal volume, which we hypothesize is stress related. Altered hippocampal function can be associated with an impairment of memory recall, or the accurate integration of individual elements of memory.

Positive Slow Wave

Form what he terms a somewhat unstable or tenuous template for a relatively novel stimulus that has been seen infrequently (but one that is not completely novel, as no template could exist for such a stimulus). According to this conceptualization, this template must be periodically updated in working memory, with the PSW representing the electrical byproduct of the neural process underlying this updating. Thus the PSW occurs in response to stimuli that have only been partially encoded by the infant, with a stimulus that has been fully encoded into memory generally yielding an ERP pattern that shows a return to baseline following the Nc. Some investigators have theorized that the PSW represents a process that has generally been interpreted as reflecting the updating of working memory, or context updating, analogous to that described by Donchin regarding the adult P300 wave (e.g., Donchin, 1981 Donchin & Coles, 1988). However, it is critical to remember that the PSW is almost...

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