Memory for Trauma Related Information in Traumatized Populations

Given attentional biases in favor of trauma-related information in child maltreatment victims and or individuals with PTSD, one might expect particularly good memory for such information. Indeed there is support for such findings in the adult literature. For instance, Vrana et al. (1995) examined modified Stroop interference for trauma-related (i.e., Vietnam-specific, Vietnam-general), negative, and neutral words in relation to general free recall and recognition memory for these three word...

Longitudinal Study of Domestic Violence

The longitudinal project was originally designed to examine the impact of family violence, particularly spousal violence, on women and children's mental health (see McCloskey, Figueredo, & Koss, 1995, for further details). Our follow-up assessments on this sample, however, have provided a rich and unique opportunity for addressing questions about the operation of memory under conditions of severe stress. During the first year of the study (Year 1), McCloskey et al. (1995) recruited 363...

Abuse and the Accessibility of Childhood Memories

In the first investigation of trauma-related memory problems in our laboratory, Johnson, Greenhoot, Glisky, and McCloskey (2005) examined the extent to which both early and recent abuse experiences, as well as current depression, predicted adolescents' memory functioning during Year 6 of the longitudinal study. The sample consisted of a subset of 134 participants whose autobiographical memory assessments were transcribed and available for analysis and whose reports regarding family violence...

Autobiographical Memory in Child Sexual Abuse Victims Preliminary Findings

To examine issues of autobiographical memory for childhood events in adolescent and adult victims of child sexual abuse, we are currently conducting a study in which both autobiographical memory accuracy and specificity are examined (see Augusti et al., 2006 Block et al., 2006 Ogle et al., 2007). Among other questions, we are exploring whether child sexual abuse and PTSD are associated with more or less accurate autobiographical memory, and with more specific or more overgeneral...

Child Abuse History and Autobiographical Memory

There is considerable evidence in the clinical literature that exposure to traumatic experiences in childhood, particularly physical or sexual abuse, is linked to autobiographical memory disturbances in adulthood. Many adults who have experienced childhood trauma report gaps in their memories of childhood (e.g., Edwards, Fivush, Anda, Felitti, & Nordenberg, 2001 Herman & Schatzow, 1987). For instance, a study conducted by Edwards et al. (2001) indicated that adult men and women who...

Cognitive Perspectives

In the second part, Cognitive Perspectives, the authors examine memory for traumatic experiences and whether those experiences result in fundamental changes in children's memory development. In Chapter 4, Greenhoot, Bunnell, Curtis, and Beyer examine autobiographical memory for family violence using longitudinal data. These authors examine what is known about changes in autobiographical memory development and memory functioning that may be brought about by chronic exposure to stressful events...

Conclusions

This chapter has reviewed the neurobiology of stress and memory as it applies to traumatized children and questions related to delayed recall of childhood abuse. Studies of the effects of memory have shown that stressful events are remembered differently than normal events. For instance, evidence from flashbulb memory studies showed that emotional events are remembered better than neutral events. Other studies showed that the central features of emotional events are remembered better than...

Explanations for Abuse Related Autobiographical Memory Patterns Trauma and Cognitive Resources

One explanation for trauma-related autobiographical memory problems is that they reflect more general cognitive deficits caused by intrusive thoughts about traumatic experiences. Adults with histories of childhood trauma such as sexual or physical abuse frequently report having recurrent and intrusive negative thoughts about their victimization experiences (e.g., Kuyken & Brewin, 1994). Individuals who experience intrusive thoughts characterize them as unpleasant and report engaging in...

Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Family Violence

Bunnell, Jennifer s. curtis, and alisa MILLER BEYER Exposure to violence and abuse in the home can wreak havoc in the lives of children. Several decades of research have established that family violence and abuse are associated with atypical patterns of social, emotional, and cognitive development, including lower scores on language and intelligence assessments (Coster, Gersten, Beeghly, & Cic-chetti, 1989 Hoffman-Plotkin & Twentyman, 1984 Oates, Peacock,...

Neurohormonal Modulation of Memory

Hormones released during stress, including catecholamines and cortisol, modulate the encoding and retrieval of memory (McGaugh, 2000). Administration of epinephrine (which is released from the adrenal) affects memory retention with an inverted U-shaped curve. Memory improves up to a point and decreases with high doses (Gold & van Buskirk, 1975 Liang, Juler, & McGaugh, 1986). Lower doses of norepinephrine injected into the amygdala promote memory for an inhibitory-avoidance task, while...

Relations Over Time Within Participant Groups

Overall, the mothers who participated in the study were not especially consistent in their approach to the conversations at the two time points, whereas the children were highly consistent. Specifically, as reflected in Figure 6.3, it was only in the context of the tornado conversations that mothers' ratios of elaborations to repetitions were correlated over time. In contrast to their mothers, for both types of events, the children in the sample were highly consistent across the 6-month...

Results and Discussion

The most prominent finding was a highly significant reduction in GMV in the left primary visual (LV-1) and visual association cortices (LV-2) (Brodmann's Area BA 17 to 18 Talairach's coordinates x -27 through 14, y -90 through 86, z -10 through 1 p < 0.0001, corrected cluster level Fig. 2.1) (also see color insert). Compared with healthy control subjects, a 14.1 lower average GMV was observed in figure 2.1. Differences in gray matter volume between abuse and control subjects. Significantly...

Stress Effects on Memory

In essence, neural and behavioral development have an interdependent relationship that relies on reciprocal processing activities. Thus, one postulate is that if the process is somehow dramatically perturbed (either endogenously or exogenously), then the associated memory systems would take an altered developmental trajectory. Early damage to the hippocampus, including perinatal, results in a substantial loss of context-rich memory abilities (Bachevalier & Vargha-Khadem, 2005). High-dose...

Summary

Further research is clearly needed to identify the mechanisms underlying the effects of discrete emotions on memory, but the findings reported above support the view that discrete emotions evoke appraisal tendencies (Lerner & Keltner, 2000) as well as action tendencies (Frijda, 1986) that influence the processing, encoding, and retrieval of information in ways that are consistent with the differing functions of discrete emotions. Overall, negative emotions promote a focus on central...

The Conspicuous Absence of Developmental Trends

Notable for its absence in this chapter is discussion of developmental trends in the data. This is not because we failed to detect them. Consistent with previous research on mother-child recollections of nontrau-matic events (e.g., Fivush, Haden, & Reese, 1996 Haden, 1998), there were several instances where dyads' conversations varied with the age of the child. For example, as discussed in Ackil et al. (2003), overall, conversations with older children included more varied types of...

Four Months After the Storm

Consistent with prior research, we found relations between mothers' and children's behavior in the conversations. The relations were stronger in the context of the tornado conversations than in the conversations about the nontraumatic events. The indices that are most defining of maternal style are the number of elaborations mothers make, the number of repetitions they produce, and the ratio of elaborations to repetitions (e.g., Fivush & Fromhoff, 1988 Reese et al., 1993). As might be...

Expanded Neurobioevolutional Model

Simply put, our initial guiding hypothesis was that CA is a substantial stressor that serves as an antecedent to a succession of developmental brain modifications and associated behavioral dysfunction. Subsequently, this stance was held and expressed by other investigators (Bremner, 1999 Nelson & Carver, 1998 Penza, Heim, & Nemeroff, 2003). Our recent theorizing, however, expands upon this original position and couches the consequences of CA in an evolutionary framework that also...

Event Related Potentials and Memory in Nonclinical Populations

Over the past three decades, research utilizing event-related potentials (ERPs) has greatly advanced knowledge concerning the neural underpinnings of a variety of cognitive processes in both children and adults. In addition, this methodology has allowed an examination of changes in the neural processes associated with cognitive development from early infancy through young adulthood. The vast majority of the ERP literature in children has been focused on investigating normative processes of...

ERPs and Memory An Overview of Experimental Paradigms

A number of investigators have employed ERPs over the past several decades to examine early cognitive and linguistic development (e.g., Alho, Sainio, Sajaniemi, Reinikainen, & Naatanen, 1990 Molfese & Molfese, 1985). To date, however, the large majority of ERP research with infants and young children has investigated recognition memory (see Nelson, 1994, 1996, and Nelson et al., 2006, for a comprehensive review of this area). Such cognitive research employing ERP methodology with infants...

Method and Participants

Subjects selected for study were right-handed, healthy, unmedicated young adults (18 to 22 years of age), with excellent hearing and visual acuity, recruited from the community by advertisements targeted toward college students. They were selected based on (a) a complete absence of exposure to trauma or (b) a self-reported history of exposure to repeated childhood sexual abuse (CSA, defined as at least three episodes of forced sexual contact accompanied by threats of harm to self or others and...

Trauma and Emotion Regulation

The prevailing explanation for trauma-related memory deficits is that they reflect emotion regulation processes that have their roots in early adverse experiences (e.g., Brittlebank et al., 1993 Burnside et al., 2004 Williams, 1996). According to this model, stressful experiences during childhood lead to the development of a trait-like cognitive style that involves avoiding the retrieval of specific details of past events to blunt potentially negative affect (Williams, 1996). Evidence for the...

Stress and Memory in Children

Studies have also examined the effects of stress on memory in children. Three- to 4-year-old children interviewed after Hurricane Andrew were assessed for memory of the storm (Bahrick, Parker, Fivush, & Levitt, 1998). The authors found an inverted U curve, with best memory at intermediate levels of storm damage and a decrease in memory at the highest levels of storm damage. Studies of healthy children 4 to 6 years of age who went to the doctor and had blood draws, injections, and genital and...

Interpretation and Integration Linkages Among Attachment Memory and Maltreatment

Although most of the studies utilizing ERPs to examine children raised in atypical environments have not been designed to specifically assess memory functioning (Parker & Nelson, 2005b, is the exception), some insights may be gleaned from these studies concerning the linkage between attachment processes and the relation between internal working models, affect, and memory. The extant body of literature on the relationship between children's memory and attachment orientation has been limited...

Is there Evidence of Differential Socialization of Narratives About Traumatic and Nontraumatic Events

As just reviewed, there are some indications that children report more information about traumatic relative to nontraumatic events. The findings must be interpreted with caution, however, given other variables that vary across these event types (e.g., duration and impact of the event) and the basis for selection into some studies that afford direct comparison of the types of events. Indeed, with the length of the conversation controlled statistically, there is little evidence of differences in...

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.) Washington, DC American Psychiatric Publishing. Anda, R. F, Felitti, V J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 256(3),...

Memory in Patients with Abuse Related PTSD

Empirical studies do show, however, that patients with early abuse and the diagnosis of PTSD or other stress-related mental disorders have a variety of memory problems (Buckley, Blanchard, & Neill, 2000 Elzinga & Bremner, 2002). Adults with early childhood abuse (Bremner et al., 1995) were found to have deficits in verbal declarative memory function based on neuropsychological testing (Wechsler Memory Scale and Selective Reminding Test) similar findings were found in traumatized children...

Summary and Interpretation of Major Findings

The first major question we addressed was whether there were differences in the amount of information that children ages 3 to 11 years provided about the tornado that devastated their town relative to the amount of information they provided about nontraumatic events that occurred before and after the tornado. Both 4 months and 10 months after the storm, conversations about the tornado were twice as long as conversations about the two nontraumatic events. The children themselves contributed more...

Contributors

Ackil, Department of Psychology, Gustavus Adolphus College Else-Marie Augusti, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis Patricia J. Bauer, Department of Psychology, Emory University Alisa Miller Beyer, Department of Psychology, University of Kansas Stephanie D. Block, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis Charles J. Brainerd, Cornell University J. Douglas Bremner, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Radiology, Emory...

Semantic m Phonological

Developmental trends in false memory for distractors that are semantically related to list targets and developmental trends in false memory for distractors that are phonologically related to list targets, as reported by Holliday and Weekes (in press). were extended downward to include children as young as Dewhurst and Robinson's (2004) youngest participants, perceptual illusions would be more seductive than semantic illusions. This article answers an important question are age...

Memory for Nontrauma Related Information in Traumatized Populations

The research reviewed so far would lead one to suspect that individuals with maltreatment histories and or PTSD might be particularly accurate at remembering trauma-related information. After all, such individuals appear to pay particular attention to trauma-related cues. However, other research points to deficits in memory function in child sexual abuse victims, especially those who have developed PTSD. Most of the latter research has concerned memory for information that is not...

Discrete Emotions and Memory in Children

The research reviewed above indicates that children's emotional experience of events depends on how they appraise those events. The manner in which children appraise a potentially stressful incident has implications for what they consider to be central versus irrelevant (peripheral) during the incident and hence what they are likely to remember. Children's appraisals are similar to those of adults in many respects, but are less complex. Children also have more limited resources available to...

How Mothers and Children Converse About a Devastating Tornado

BURCH, DANA L. VAN ABBEMA, AND JENNIFER K. ACKIL A deeply rooted assumption is that highly stressful and even traumatic events are differentially remembered relative to events that are more affectively neutral or positive. In the present chapter, we evaluate this assumption using data from a study of children's reports of the experience of a tornado that devastated the town of St. Peter, Minnesota, in March of 1998. The evaluation is multifaceted, featuring...

Do Children Report Different Types of Information About Traumatic and Nontraumatic Events

A good narrative includes several types of information, including the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the event. As we reported in Ackil et al. (2003), the breadth of the mother-children conversations differed as a function of whether they were talking about the tornado or the non-traumatic events. Specifically, tornado conversations were more likely to include contextual information (e.g., mention of being in a specific location during the event), information about the causes and...

Mark l howe gail s goodman and dante cicchetti

Memory for emotional events captivates writers, scholars, citizens, and scientists. From theories, historic and recent, concerning the unconscious preservation of traumatic memories to those suggesting that traumatic experiences are well preserved in our conscious mind, theorists have tried to unravel the mysteries of emotion and memory. Across the centuries, the most popular belief has been that records of our experiences, particularly emotional and traumatic ones, are preserved with...

Negative Slow Wave

This long-latency slow wave has been described in infant ERPs by Karrer and colleagues (e.g., Karrer & Ackles, 1987) and Nelson and colleagues (e.g., de Haan & Nelson, 1997 Nelson & Collins, 1992). The NSW has typically been observed to follow the Nc and occurs when infants detect the periodic appearance of an unfamiliar stimulus in a presentation of otherwise familiar stimuli (Nelson, 1994). The NSW may represent neural processes underlying the detection of novel events against a...

Accuracy of Autobiographical Memory

Albeit scant in number, investigations of autobiographical memory accuracy in adults and children who have suffered child abuse point both to memory deficits as well as advantages. Evidence of a detrimental effect of trauma on autobiographical memory functioning is drawn from research with adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Edwards, Fivush, Anda, Felitti, and Nordenberg (2001) described autobiographical memory loss (i.e., gaps in memory) for childhood experiences in a nonclinical adult...

False Memory for Words

The developmental literature contains early examples of papers on false memory for words, with articles by Felzen and Anisfeld (1970) and Cramer (1972) being classics in the area. For most of the past 3 decades, however, the study of children's false memories has been dominated by memory for heavily schematized information, such as that which is presented in narrative tasks. Recently, this situation has begun to change, with an increasing number of studies appearing in which children recall or...

Carryl p navalta akemi tomoda and martin h teicher

Over the past 20 years, our research has focused on elucidating the developmental effects of child abuse (CA) at the behavioral and neurobiologi-cal levels. In parallel, a cadre of behavioral scientists and neuroscientists has collectively established a substantial body of work on the etiology, course, and outcome of CA (for reviews, see Glaser, 2000 Heim & Nemeroff, 2002 Kaufman & Charney, 2001 Putnam, 2003 Tarullo & Gunnar, 2006 Teicher et al., 2003 Teicher, Tomoda, & Andersen,...

Childrens Spontaneous False Memories Theory and Data

As we pointed out in an earlier review (Brainerd & Reyna, 1998), the study of children's false memories can be segmented into research on two classes of phenomena spontaneous false memories and implanted false memories. The former arise from normal, uncontrolled distortion processes that all memory is heir to, whereas the latter are due to misinformation (Remember when you drank that Pepsi at the game last week ), whether accidental or deliberate, that is imposed between the time that an...

Trauma and Hippocampal Function

Another explanation for trauma-related autobiographical memory problems is that they reflect more general memory deficits caused by the harmful physiologic effects of chronic or traumatic stress on the structure and function of the brain. Much of the research relevant to this hypothesis has focused on cortisol-related damage to the hippocampus, an area of the brain thought to be involved in the consolidation of memory traces into cohesive, context-rich episodic memories (Nelson, 2000 Nelson...

Contents

Prologue Turning Science into Practice 1 Mark L. Howe, Gail S. Goodman, and Dante Cicchetti Part I. Neurobiological Perspectives 1. The Neurobiology of Trauma and Memory in Children 11 2. Trajectories of Neurobehavioral Development The Clinical Neuroscience of Child Abuse 50 Carryl P. Navalta, Akemi Tomoda, and Martin H. Teicher 3. Maltreatment, Event-Related Potentials, and Memory 83 4. Trauma and Autobiographical Memory Functioning Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Family Violence 139...

Semantic Ar Phonology

Developmental trends in false memory for distractors that are semantically or phonologically related to list targets as a function of the number of times (1 vs. 8) that semantic or phonological relations were cued by target materials. Source Brainerd & Reyna, 2007. basis of false memory. Specifically, as in Holliday and Weekes's research, the Sommers and Lewis (1999) phonological lists were used to create target lists in which some phonological relations (e.g., for the word cat)...

Left Amygdala

Increased amygdala function during acquisition of conditioned fear responses in women with early childhood abuse and PTSD. Lighter areas represent bilateral amygdala activation. There was greater amygdala activation with acquisition of fear responses (pairing of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus) in women with PTSD compared to controls z > 3.09, p < 0.001. Source Bremner et al., 2005. Fewer brain-imaging studies have been performed in children with PTSD. Several...

Specificity of Autobiographical Memory

The growing body of literature on the specificity of autobiographical recall is important to the study of trauma and autobiographical memory functioning. As mentioned earlier, overgeneral autobiographical memory, first reported by Williams and Broadbent (1986), refers to autobiographical memory reports that are categorical in nature and lacking in detail and vividness. Such overgeneral autobiographical memory has been found in individuals with a wide range of psychological disorders (e.g.,...

Our Earlier Studies

We first began exploring the neurobiological underpinnings of CA by examining individuals with borderline personality disorder who had (a) symptoms indicative of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), (b) abnormal electroencephalograms (EEG) consisting of spike and sharp waves, and (c) findings of temporal mesial sclerosis or dilated temporal horns as observed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (Teicher, Glod, Surrey, & Swett, 1993). Given that these individuals all had a history...

Discrete Emotions and Appraisal Processes

According to appraisal theories, emotions such as happiness, fear, anger, and sadness are elicited by different interpretations of events and are associated with different physiological responses, motivational states, and problem-solving strategies. These characteristics of emotional experiences should influence the type of information people deem to be important or central and, therefore, the type of information they attend to and remember. Thus discrete emotions may serve as a powerful...

Attention to Trauma Related Information in Maltreated Populations

Studying maltreated children can provide crucial information about mechanisms that underlie emotional processing and, by extension, autobiographical memory. It has been proposed that, in certain respects, maltreated children process emotional cues differently than do nonmaltreated children (see Pollak, 2003, for review). Specifically, Pollak (2003) contends that the processing of negative emotions can be heightened in maltreated children because negative emotional signals in their home...

Conclusion

The jury is still out on the extent to which severe stress in the form of CA has true negative sequelae on the development of memory and its function. Thus far, research has shown that children who have been abused perform as well as other children on basic memory tasks (Howe, Cicchetti, et al., 2006, Howe, Toth, et al., 2006). Global brain-volume differences that have been observed also have not been associated with differences in children's memory performance (De Bellis & Thomas, 2003)....

Discrete Emotions and Memory

A growing body of research supports the view that discrete emotions have distinct effects on memory. Research on both adults and children suggests, for instance, that positive memories encompass a broad range of information whereas negative memories focus on specific information relevant to preventing fear , reversing anger , or adjusting to sadness goal failure. As one example, Berntsen 2002 had independent judges code the content of adults' most negative and positive autobiographical memories...

Memory Its Systems and Their Development

At its most basic level, memory has been conceptualized as a process in which events influence the brain and its future activity Siegel, 2001 . However, memory is presently understood as a multifactorial phenomenon that includes, but is not limited to, the timing of the remembered event immediate, recent, remote , the type of processing that is activated encoding, storage, retrieval , strategies used to enhance processing e.g., rehearsal , the sensory modalities that are impinged upon e.g.,...

Normal Development of Cognition and the Brain

Cognition and the brain undergo changes across the lifespan from early childhood to late life Bremner, 2005a . Understanding these normal developmental changes is critical for determining the difference between normal development and pathology, as well as how they interact. Normal memory formation involves encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Encoding refers to the laying down of the memory trace, consolidation is the process by which the memory goes from short-term to long-term storage, and...

Nothing But the Truth Suggestibility of Child Witnesses

The credibility of children's accounts is often challenged on the grounds that they are especially vulnerable to suggestion Ceci amp Bruck, 1993, 1995 . Initial laboratory-based research appeared to produce inconsistent findings regarding the suggestibility of young children, however. Goodman and her colleagues have shown that children as young as 3 to 4 years of age can successfully resist misleading questions suggesting actions that are very different from those that have occurred or been...

Charles J Brainerd And Valerie F Reyna

The present chapter focuses on the scientific study of children's false memories and how susceptibility to false memories changes with age. These topics are instructive examples of how applied issues in child development in this instance, a form of child maltreatment can stimulate research literatures that are not only vigorous but also rigorous and theory driven. The form of maltreatment in question is child sexual abuse CSA . Although it is always important, as a matter of principle, to...

Other Studies

Emerging evidence about the effects of stress on the hippocampus suggests that a unique developmental trajectory exists. For example, two initial, separate studies conducted by De Bellis and colleagues 1999, 2002 using independent samples of children with PTSD secondary to CA indicate that the hippocampus is unaltered, at least in terms of volumetric size. More recent work has demonstrated that the hippocampus may actually be larger in children who have been abused Tupler amp De Bellis, 2006 ....

Discrete Emotions Appraisal Processes and Emotion Regulation

Research on the development of emotional experience and understanding in childhood suggests considerable similarity between children's and adults' appraisals of events, although some key differences are also noteworthy. Regarding appraisal similarity, research shows continuity across development in the basic types of appraisals that elicit discrete emotions. For instance, in the first year of life, infants display facial expressions of happiness in response to success at instrumental attempts...

Why Traumatic Events Should Be Differentially Remembered

One of the bases for the expectation of differences in memories of stressful or traumatic experiences and nontraumatic experiences is the classic Yerkes-Dodson Law of optimal arousal Yerkes amp Dodson, 1908 . Briefly, the law predicts a systematic relation between level of arousal and performance, such that when arousal is either too low or too high, performance will be impaired relative to when arousal level is optimal. Stressful or traumatic experiences are expected to increase arousal...

Positive Slow Wave

This waveform was first reported in early work by Courchesne and colleagues examining changes in ERP waveforms from childhood to adulthood Courchesne, 1977, 1978 Courchesne et al., 1981 . It is a long-latency, positive slow wave that begins approximately 1000 ms after stimulus onset and continues for up to another 1000 ms see Figure 3.1 for an example of the morphology of this component . The designation slow wave indicates that this waveform does not exhibit a sharp peak but rather encompasses...

Autobiographical and Overgeneral Memory in Adolescents and Adults

The theories reviewed so far focus mainly on the initial emergence or early stages of autobiographical memory in childhood. In the present chapter, we are primarily concerned with adolescents' and adults' autobiographical memory for childhood events, and thus theories of autobiographical memories in adolescents and adults are also relevant. Rubin 2006 has proposed the basic systems model. Taking this approach, Rubin contends that several basic systems are involved in autobiographical memory...

ERP Studies of Rearing in Atypical Environments

In this section, we review studies that have utilized ERPs to examine the effects of rearing in atypical emotional environments. The first investigations to be reviewed were carried out by Parker, Nelson, and their colleagues in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project Core Group Parker amp Nelson, 2005a, 2005b . These investigators conducted two studies with two groups of Romanian youngsters one group was institutionalized and the other had never experienced institutional care. The researchers...

False Memory for Narrative Statements

A good novel encourages readers to make inferences about events that are happening behind the scenes. However, that leads to a common mistake as readers proceed through the novel, they may mistake inferences that they have made based on the plot for events that were specifically discussed at some point in the story. In a classic paper, Bransford and Franks 1971 studied a laboratory analogue of this situation and showed that participants' recollections of narratives are thoroughly infected with...

Eliciting the Truth from Child Witnesses

Numerous studies have shown a developmental progression in the amount of information children recall, with younger children typically recalling less than older children e.g., Gee amp Pipe, 1995 Goodman, Aman, amp Hirschman, 1987 Goodman amp Reed, 1986 Marin, Holmes, Guth, amp Kovac, 1979 Oates amp Shrimpton, 1991 Saywitz, 1987 . Age in itself is not sufficient to account for the variability in children's recall, however, since variability in recall among children of similar ages is common...

Mental Context Reinstatement

Studies of cognitive techniques such as mental context reinstatement MCR guiding children to mentally reconstruct the settings in which the events occurred indicate that this can be a useful technique for helping children retrieve as much information as possible Bekerian, Den-net, Hill, amp Hitchcock, 1990 Hershkowitz, Orbach, Lamb, Sternberg, amp Horowitz, 2001 McCauley amp Fisher, 1995, 1996 . Using MCR, children are instructed to think about different sensory features of the event e.g., what...

ERP Waveforms and Memory

When studying infants and children, researchers have documented numerous ERP waveforms that appear to be correlates of underlying neu-rocognitive processes related to memory. As a result, great progress has been made in understanding the neural processes underlying the behavioral manifestations of memory as well as memory development e.g., Nelson, 1995 . An important consideration in examining the impact of maltreatment is the effect it may have on the developing brain Cic-chetti, 2002b...

Early Autobiographical Memory and Early Overgeneral Memory

In considering the effects of trauma on autobiographical memory, it is first important to review what is known from research and theory about the emergence of this specific memory function. Many diverse lines of research converge to suggest that children's ability to form and verbally recall enduring memories of specific, personal events develops at approximately 2.5 to 3 years of age, with some 2-year-olds able to accurately remember events dating back to age 1 Peterson, 2002 . Memory in...

Neurobiology of PTSD Relevance to Memory Recall of Abuse

Neuroanatomy Memory Ptsd

PTSD is associated with long-term changes in the function and structure of brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the stress response Bremner, 2002 Bremner, 2005b Pitman, 2001 Vermetten amp Bremner, 2002a, 2002b Fig. 1.1 . Brain regions that are felt to play an important role in PTSD include hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex. Cortisol and norepinephrine are two neurochemical systems that are critical in the stress response Fig. 1.1 . The neurobiology of PTSD is...

Bremner J.d. 2001 . Gender Differences In Cognitive And Neural Correlates Of Remembrance Of Emotional Words.

L. 1987 . Single-unit response of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus of freely moving cats. II. Adaptation to chronically presented stressful stimuli. Journal of Neuroscience, 7, 2844-2848. Abercrombie, H. C., Speck, N. S., amp Monticelli, R. M. 2005 . Endogenous cortisol elevations are related to memory facilitation only in individuals who are emotionally aroused. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 187-196. Alexander, K. W, Quas, J. A., Goodman, G. S.,...

The Nichd Interview Protocol

The NICHD protocol begins with an introductory phase that promotes rapport includes a truth and lie ceremony to communicate to children the importance of truth telling and establishes the ground rules for the interview, such as the acceptability of saying I don't know and correcting the interviewer. Children are then asked for information about themselves, their families, and their schools, using open-ended questions. Following this, children are asked to describe two recent experiences e.g.,...

Neurobiological Perspectives

In the first part, Neurobiological Perspectives, the authors present state-of-the-art research on the consequences for memory and memory development of the neurobiological changes that accompany childhood stress, trauma, and maltreatment. Specifically, in the first chapter, Bremner examines the interaction between brain development, trauma onset, memory, and the neurobiological consequences of trauma. He proposes a model of how stress-induced changes in brain systems involved in stress and...

Making Children Into Competent Witnesses And Esplin

The effect of intellectual disability on children's recall of an event across different question types. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 273-294. Aldridge, J., amp Cameron, S. 1999 . Interviewing child witnesses Questioning techniques and the role of training. Applied Developmental Science, 3, 136-147. Aldridge, J., Lamb, M. E., Sternberg, K. J., Orbach, Y., Esplin, P. W, amp Bowler, L. 2004 . Using a human figure drawing to elicit information from alleged victims...

Childrens Memory for Stressful Events

Studies concerning children's memory for stressful events can be heu-ristically divided into two general categories based on the type of event being remembered. One set of studies has focused on children's memory for naturally occurring stressful events see Chapter 6 , and the other has concerned children's memory for mildly arousing laboratory-based experiences. Across both types of studies, however, the central question has been the same does stress help or hurt children's memory...

Application of ERP Methodology

ERP methodology is ideal for use in younger populations and is well suited for assessment of neural function even in young infants in contrast, the use of other, more invasive imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI or positron emission tomography PET are typically only justified in infants and young children when medically necessary. In addition, although other, less invasive methods such as magnetoencephalography MEG could potentially be used with younger...

Info

Relation between age and a corrected measure A' of false recognition of the critical distractors of high and low Deese Roediger-McDermott paradigm lists in Experiment 3 of Brainerd, Reyna, and Forrest 2002 . increased during childhood, but they continued to increase between age 11 and young adulthood, continuing to reinforce the theme of very gradual emergence of false memory in the DRM paradigm. Another finding that reinforces the same theme concerns false memories on high versus...