Childrens Spontaneous False Memories Theory and Data

As we pointed out in an earlier review (Brainerd & Reyna, 1998), the study of children's false memories can be segmented into research on two classes of phenomena spontaneous false memories and implanted false memories. The former arise from normal, uncontrolled distortion processes that all memory is heir to, whereas the latter are due to misinformation (Remember when you drank that Pepsi at the game last week ), whether accidental or deliberate, that is imposed between the time that an...

Trauma and Hippocampal Function

Another explanation for trauma-related autobiographical memory problems is that they reflect more general memory deficits caused by the harmful physiologic effects of chronic or traumatic stress on the structure and function of the brain. Much of the research relevant to this hypothesis has focused on cortisol-related damage to the hippocampus, an area of the brain thought to be involved in the consolidation of memory traces into cohesive, context-rich episodic memories (Nelson, 2000 Nelson...

Contents

Prologue Turning Science into Practice 1 Mark L. Howe, Gail S. Goodman, and Dante Cicchetti Part I. Neurobiological Perspectives 1. The Neurobiology of Trauma and Memory in Children 11 2. Trajectories of Neurobehavioral Development The Clinical Neuroscience of Child Abuse 50 Carryl P. Navalta, Akemi Tomoda, and Martin H. Teicher 3. Maltreatment, Event-Related Potentials, and Memory 83 4. Trauma and Autobiographical Memory Functioning Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Family Violence 139...

Semantic Ar Phonology

Developmental trends in false memory for distractors that are semantically or phonologically related to list targets as a function of the number of times (1 vs. 8) that semantic or phonological relations were cued by target materials. Source Brainerd & Reyna, 2007. basis of false memory. Specifically, as in Holliday and Weekes's research, the Sommers and Lewis (1999) phonological lists were used to create target lists in which some phonological relations (e.g., for the word cat)...

Left Amygdala

Increased amygdala function during acquisition of conditioned fear responses in women with early childhood abuse and PTSD. Lighter areas represent bilateral amygdala activation. There was greater amygdala activation with acquisition of fear responses (pairing of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus) in women with PTSD compared to controls z > 3.09, p < 0.001. Source Bremner et al., 2005. Fewer brain-imaging studies have been performed in children with PTSD. Several...

Specificity of Autobiographical Memory

The growing body of literature on the specificity of autobiographical recall is important to the study of trauma and autobiographical memory functioning. As mentioned earlier, overgeneral autobiographical memory, first reported by Williams and Broadbent (1986), refers to autobiographical memory reports that are categorical in nature and lacking in detail and vividness. Such overgeneral autobiographical memory has been found in individuals with a wide range of psychological disorders (e.g.,...

Our Earlier Studies

We first began exploring the neurobiological underpinnings of CA by examining individuals with borderline personality disorder who had (a) symptoms indicative of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), (b) abnormal electroencephalograms (EEG) consisting of spike and sharp waves, and (c) findings of temporal mesial sclerosis or dilated temporal horns as observed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (Teicher, Glod, Surrey, & Swett, 1993). Given that these individuals all had a history...

References

L., & Bauer, P J. (2003). After the storm Enduring differences in mother-child recollections of traumatic and nontraumatic events. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 84, 286-309. Bahrick, L., Parker, J., Merritt, K., & Fivush, R. (1998). Children's memory for Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied, 4, 308-331. Bauer, P. J. (2007). Remembering the times of our lives Memory in infancy and beyond. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum...

Discrete Emotions and Appraisal Processes

According to appraisal theories, emotions such as happiness, fear, anger, and sadness are elicited by different interpretations of events and are associated with different physiological responses, motivational states, and problem-solving strategies. These characteristics of emotional experiences should influence the type of information people deem to be important or central and, therefore, the type of information they attend to and remember. Thus discrete emotions may serve as a powerful...

Attention to Trauma Related Information in Maltreated Populations

Studying maltreated children can provide crucial information about mechanisms that underlie emotional processing and, by extension, autobiographical memory. It has been proposed that, in certain respects, maltreated children process emotional cues differently than do nonmaltreated children (see Pollak, 2003, for review). Specifically, Pollak (2003) contends that the processing of negative emotions can be heightened in maltreated children because negative emotional signals in their home...

Conclusion

The jury is still out on the extent to which severe stress in the form of CA has true negative sequelae on the development of memory and its function. Thus far, research has shown that children who have been abused perform as well as other children on basic memory tasks (Howe, Cicchetti, et al., 2006, Howe, Toth, et al., 2006). Global brain-volume differences that have been observed also have not been associated with differences in children's memory performance (De Bellis & Thomas, 2003)....

Discrete Emotions and Memory

A growing body of research supports the view that discrete emotions have distinct effects on memory. Research on both adults and children suggests, for instance, that positive memories encompass a broad range of information whereas negative memories focus on specific information relevant to preventing fear , reversing anger , or adjusting to sadness goal failure. As one example, Berntsen 2002 had independent judges code the content of adults' most negative and positive autobiographical memories...

Memory Its Systems and Their Development

At its most basic level, memory has been conceptualized as a process in which events influence the brain and its future activity Siegel, 2001 . However, memory is presently understood as a multifactorial phenomenon that includes, but is not limited to, the timing of the remembered event immediate, recent, remote , the type of processing that is activated encoding, storage, retrieval , strategies used to enhance processing e.g., rehearsal , the sensory modalities that are impinged upon e.g.,...

Normal Development of Cognition and the Brain

Cognition and the brain undergo changes across the lifespan from early childhood to late life Bremner, 2005a . Understanding these normal developmental changes is critical for determining the difference between normal development and pathology, as well as how they interact. Normal memory formation involves encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Encoding refers to the laying down of the memory trace, consolidation is the process by which the memory goes from short-term to long-term storage, and...

Nothing But the Truth Suggestibility of Child Witnesses

The credibility of children's accounts is often challenged on the grounds that they are especially vulnerable to suggestion Ceci amp Bruck, 1993, 1995 . Initial laboratory-based research appeared to produce inconsistent findings regarding the suggestibility of young children, however. Goodman and her colleagues have shown that children as young as 3 to 4 years of age can successfully resist misleading questions suggesting actions that are very different from those that have occurred or been...

Charles J Brainerd And Valerie F Reyna

The present chapter focuses on the scientific study of children's false memories and how susceptibility to false memories changes with age. These topics are instructive examples of how applied issues in child development in this instance, a form of child maltreatment can stimulate research literatures that are not only vigorous but also rigorous and theory driven. The form of maltreatment in question is child sexual abuse CSA . Although it is always important, as a matter of principle, to...

Other Studies

Emerging evidence about the effects of stress on the hippocampus suggests that a unique developmental trajectory exists. For example, two initial, separate studies conducted by De Bellis and colleagues 1999, 2002 using independent samples of children with PTSD secondary to CA indicate that the hippocampus is unaltered, at least in terms of volumetric size. More recent work has demonstrated that the hippocampus may actually be larger in children who have been abused Tupler amp De Bellis, 2006 ....

Discrete Emotions Appraisal Processes and Emotion Regulation

Research on the development of emotional experience and understanding in childhood suggests considerable similarity between children's and adults' appraisals of events, although some key differences are also noteworthy. Regarding appraisal similarity, research shows continuity across development in the basic types of appraisals that elicit discrete emotions. For instance, in the first year of life, infants display facial expressions of happiness in response to success at instrumental attempts...

Why Traumatic Events Should Be Differentially Remembered

One of the bases for the expectation of differences in memories of stressful or traumatic experiences and nontraumatic experiences is the classic Yerkes-Dodson Law of optimal arousal Yerkes amp Dodson, 1908 . Briefly, the law predicts a systematic relation between level of arousal and performance, such that when arousal is either too low or too high, performance will be impaired relative to when arousal level is optimal. Stressful or traumatic experiences are expected to increase arousal...

Positive Slow Wave

This waveform was first reported in early work by Courchesne and colleagues examining changes in ERP waveforms from childhood to adulthood Courchesne, 1977, 1978 Courchesne et al., 1981 . It is a long-latency, positive slow wave that begins approximately 1000 ms after stimulus onset and continues for up to another 1000 ms see Figure 3.1 for an example of the morphology of this component . The designation slow wave indicates that this waveform does not exhibit a sharp peak but rather encompasses...

Autobiographical and Overgeneral Memory in Adolescents and Adults

The theories reviewed so far focus mainly on the initial emergence or early stages of autobiographical memory in childhood. In the present chapter, we are primarily concerned with adolescents' and adults' autobiographical memory for childhood events, and thus theories of autobiographical memories in adolescents and adults are also relevant. Rubin 2006 has proposed the basic systems model. Taking this approach, Rubin contends that several basic systems are involved in autobiographical memory...

ERP Studies of Rearing in Atypical Environments

In this section, we review studies that have utilized ERPs to examine the effects of rearing in atypical emotional environments. The first investigations to be reviewed were carried out by Parker, Nelson, and their colleagues in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project Core Group Parker amp Nelson, 2005a, 2005b . These investigators conducted two studies with two groups of Romanian youngsters one group was institutionalized and the other had never experienced institutional care. The researchers...

False Memory for Narrative Statements

A good novel encourages readers to make inferences about events that are happening behind the scenes. However, that leads to a common mistake as readers proceed through the novel, they may mistake inferences that they have made based on the plot for events that were specifically discussed at some point in the story. In a classic paper, Bransford and Franks 1971 studied a laboratory analogue of this situation and showed that participants' recollections of narratives are thoroughly infected with...

Eliciting the Truth from Child Witnesses

Numerous studies have shown a developmental progression in the amount of information children recall, with younger children typically recalling less than older children e.g., Gee amp Pipe, 1995 Goodman, Aman, amp Hirschman, 1987 Goodman amp Reed, 1986 Marin, Holmes, Guth, amp Kovac, 1979 Oates amp Shrimpton, 1991 Saywitz, 1987 . Age in itself is not sufficient to account for the variability in children's recall, however, since variability in recall among children of similar ages is common...

Mental Context Reinstatement

Studies of cognitive techniques such as mental context reinstatement MCR guiding children to mentally reconstruct the settings in which the events occurred indicate that this can be a useful technique for helping children retrieve as much information as possible Bekerian, Den-net, Hill, amp Hitchcock, 1990 Hershkowitz, Orbach, Lamb, Sternberg, amp Horowitz, 2001 McCauley amp Fisher, 1995, 1996 . Using MCR, children are instructed to think about different sensory features of the event e.g., what...

ERP Waveforms and Memory

When studying infants and children, researchers have documented numerous ERP waveforms that appear to be correlates of underlying neu-rocognitive processes related to memory. As a result, great progress has been made in understanding the neural processes underlying the behavioral manifestations of memory as well as memory development e.g., Nelson, 1995 . An important consideration in examining the impact of maltreatment is the effect it may have on the developing brain Cic-chetti, 2002b...

Early Autobiographical Memory and Early Overgeneral Memory

In considering the effects of trauma on autobiographical memory, it is first important to review what is known from research and theory about the emergence of this specific memory function. Many diverse lines of research converge to suggest that children's ability to form and verbally recall enduring memories of specific, personal events develops at approximately 2.5 to 3 years of age, with some 2-year-olds able to accurately remember events dating back to age 1 Peterson, 2002 . Memory in...

Neurobiology of PTSD Relevance to Memory Recall of Abuse

Hypothalamus

PTSD is associated with long-term changes in the function and structure of brain regions and neurochemical systems involved in the stress response Bremner, 2002 Bremner, 2005b Pitman, 2001 Vermetten amp Bremner, 2002a, 2002b Fig. 1.1 . Brain regions that are felt to play an important role in PTSD include hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex. Cortisol and norepinephrine are two neurochemical systems that are critical in the stress response Fig. 1.1 . The neurobiology of PTSD is...

Bremner J.d. 2001 . Gender Differences In Cognitive And Neural Correlates Of Remembrance Of Emotional Words.

L. 1987 . Single-unit response of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus of freely moving cats. II. Adaptation to chronically presented stressful stimuli. Journal of Neuroscience, 7, 2844-2848. Abercrombie, H. C., Speck, N. S., amp Monticelli, R. M. 2005 . Endogenous cortisol elevations are related to memory facilitation only in individuals who are emotionally aroused. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 187-196. Alexander, K. W, Quas, J. A., Goodman, G. S.,...

The Nichd Interview Protocol

The NICHD protocol begins with an introductory phase that promotes rapport includes a truth and lie ceremony to communicate to children the importance of truth telling and establishes the ground rules for the interview, such as the acceptability of saying I don't know and correcting the interviewer. Children are then asked for information about themselves, their families, and their schools, using open-ended questions. Following this, children are asked to describe two recent experiences e.g.,...

Neurobiological Perspectives

In the first part, Neurobiological Perspectives, the authors present state-of-the-art research on the consequences for memory and memory development of the neurobiological changes that accompany childhood stress, trauma, and maltreatment. Specifically, in the first chapter, Bremner examines the interaction between brain development, trauma onset, memory, and the neurobiological consequences of trauma. He proposes a model of how stress-induced changes in brain systems involved in stress and...

Childrens Memory for Stressful Events

Studies concerning children's memory for stressful events can be heu-ristically divided into two general categories based on the type of event being remembered. One set of studies has focused on children's memory for naturally occurring stressful events see Chapter 6 , and the other has concerned children's memory for mildly arousing laboratory-based experiences. Across both types of studies, however, the central question has been the same does stress help or hurt children's memory...

Application of ERP Methodology

ERP methodology is ideal for use in younger populations and is well suited for assessment of neural function even in young infants in contrast, the use of other, more invasive imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI or positron emission tomography PET are typically only justified in infants and young children when medically necessary. In addition, although other, less invasive methods such as magnetoencephalography MEG could potentially be used with younger...

Info

Relation between age and a corrected measure A' of false recognition of the critical distractors of high and low Deese Roediger-McDermott paradigm lists in Experiment 3 of Brainerd, Reyna, and Forrest 2002 . increased during childhood, but they continued to increase between age 11 and young adulthood, continuing to reinforce the theme of very gradual emergence of false memory in the DRM paradigm. Another finding that reinforces the same theme concerns false memories on high versus...