Glance At The History Of Parenting Infants

Infancy is an easily definable stage of life, based on biological and mental data as well as on social convention. Infants do not speak, whereas young and old people do infants creep and crawl, whereas young and old people walk and run. Harkness and Super (1983, p. 223) suggested that a primary function of culture in shaping human experience is the division of the continuum of human development into meaningful segments, or 'stages____' All cultures recognize infancy as a stage of human...

Contents of Volume Biology and Ecology of Parenting

Chapter 1 The Evolution of Parenting and Evolutionary Approaches to Childrearing David F. Bjorklund, Jennifer L. Yunger, and Anthony D. Pellegrini 3 Chapter 2 Hormonal Bases of Parenting in Mammals Chapter 3 Psychobiology of Maternal Behavior and Its Early Determinants in Nonhuman Mammals Alison S. Fleming and Ming Li 61 Chapter 5 Psychobiology of Maternal Behavior in Human Beings CarlM. Corter and Alison S. Fleming 141 Hanus Papousek and Mechthild Papousek 183 PART II SOCIAL ECOLOGY OF...

Summary

Parenting stands at the confluence of many complex tributaries of influence some arise within the individual, whereas others have external sources. Some reactions felt toward babies may be reflexive and universal others are idiosyncratic and vary with personality. By virtue of their temperament and the quality and the contingency of their own responsiveness, infants have a major impact on how parents parent and how parents perceive themselves as parents. Family situation, social status, and...

Info

Chapter 9 Parenting in Divorced and Remarried Families E. Mavis Hetherington and Margaret Stanley-Hagan 287 Chapter 10 Lesbian and Gay Parenthood Chapter 11 Parenting and Contemporary Reproductive Technologies PART II BECOMING AND BEING A PARENT Chapter 12 The Transition to Parenting Chapter 13 Stages of Parental Development Chapter 14 Personality and Parenting Jay Belsky and Naomi Barends 415 Chapter 15 Parents' Knowledge and Expectations Using What We Know Chapter 16 Parental Monitoring and...

The Theoretical Significance Attached To Parenting During Infancy

From the perspective of formal studies of parenting, infancy attracts attention in part because a provocative debate rages around the significance of events occurring in infancy to later development. Proponents from one viewpoint contend that infancy is not particularly influential because the experiences and the habits of infancy have little (if any) long-term significance on the life course. Others argue contrariwise that experiences and habits developed in infancy are of crucial lifelong...

Conclusions

Because of the nature of the infant as well as the range, magnitude, and implications of developmental change early in life, infancy is intensely fascinating and undeniably appealing, but challenging and formidable in the extreme for parents. The popular belief that parent-provided experiences during infancy exert powerful influences on later behavior or personality has been fostered from many quarters. Nevertheless, human behavior is quite malleable, and plasticity remains a feature of...

Related and Unrelated Nonparental Infant Caregivers

Infants commonly encounter a social world that extends beyond the immediate family. In some societies, multiple-infant caregiving is natural (e.g., Bornstein et al., 1996 Morelli and Tronick, 1991). Today, the majority of infants in the United States are cared for on a regular basis by someone in addition to a parent (Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen, in Vol. 3 of this Handbook). A common form of nonparental familial care involves relatives such as grandparents (Smith and Drew, in Vol. 3 of this...

Siblings

In many cultures, especially non-Western nonindustrialized ones, infants are found in the care of an older sister or brother (Teti, 1992 Zukow-Goldring, in Vol. 3 of this Handbook). In such situations, siblings typically spend most of their infant-tending time involved in unskilled nurturant caregiving, thereby freeing adults for more rewarding economic activities (Werner, 1979). In Western and industrialized societies, by contrast, siblings are seldom entrusted with much responsibility for...

About the Authors in Volume

BORNSTEIN is Senior Investigator and Head of Child and Family Research at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. He holds a B.A. from Columbia College and a Ph.D. from Yale University. Bornstein was a Guggenheim Foundation Fellow and received a RCDA from the NICHD, the Ford Cross-Cultural Research Award from the HRAF, the McCandless Young Scientist Award from the APA, the United States PHS Superior Service Award from the NIH, and the Arnold Gesell Prize from the...

Contexts of Parenting

Biology, personality, and perceptions of role responsibilities constitute factors that influence parenting from the start. However, societal factors condition and channel beliefs and behaviors of infants' parents as well. Family situation, social status, and culture, for example, encourage diverse patterns of parenting perceptions and practices. In some places, infants are reared in extended families in which care is provided by many relatives in others, mothers and babies are isolated from...

Foreword

Social scientists' interest in parenting has lagged far behind their attention to other aspects of human development. Early in the twentieth century, professional efforts were child focused, progressing from infant schools to nursery schools to child study centers to work like that of Arnold Gesell to chart the entire course of children's physical and social growth. Few professional people noticed parents, an exception being the U.S. Children's Bureau, which published handbooks devoted to the...

Chapter Parenting Adolescents

Silk 103 Chapter 5 Parent-Child Relationships in Adulthood and Later Years Steven H. Zarit and David J. Eggebeen 135 PART II PARENTING CHILDREN OF VARYING STATUS Wyndol Furman and Richard Lanthier 165 Chapter 8 Parenting Twins and the Genetics of Parenting Hugh Lytton with Lin Gallagher 227 Chapter 9 Child Temperament and Parenting Samuel P. Putnam, Ann V. Sanson, and Mary K. Rothbart 255 Chapter 10 Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families David M....

Developing Domains in Infancy

During infancy, children transform from immature beings unable to move their limbs in a coordinated manner to children who control complicated sequences of muscle contractions and flections in order to walk, reach, or grasp, and from children who can only babble or cry to children who make needs and desires abundantly clear in language and other ways. During infancy, children first make sense of and understand objects in the world, first express and read basic human emotions, first develop...

References On Child Development

The myth of the first three years. New York Free Press. Harris, J. R. 1998 . The nurture assumption Why children turn out the way they do. Parents matter less than you think and peers matter more. New York Free Press. Kessen, W. in press . Untitled Children's Bureau Book. New Haven, CT Yale University Press. Shonkoff, J. P., and Phillips, D. A. Eds. . 2000 . Fromneurons to neighborhoods. The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC National Academy Press.

Mechanisms of Parenting Effects on Infants

Growth And Development Infant

Parents' beliefs and behaviors influence infants and infant development by different paths. A common assumption in parenting is that the overall level of parental involvement or stimulation affects the infant's overall level of development see Maccoby and Martin, 1983 . An illustration of this simple model suggests that the development of language in infants is determined at least to some degree by the language infants hear Hart and Risley, 1995, 1999 . Indeed, mothers' single-word utterances...

Chapter Fathers and Families

Chapter 3 Coparenting in Diverse Family Systems James McHale, Inna Khazan, Pauline Erera, Tamir Rotman, 75 Wendy DeCourcey, andMelanie McConnell Marsha Weinraub, Danielle L. Horvath, and Marcy B. Gringlas 109 Peter K. Smith and Linda M. Drew 141 Mignon R. Moore and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn 173 K. Alison Clarke-Stewart and Virginia D. Allhusen 215