Cruel

National School Safety Center, cited in A. Mulrine,"Once Bullied, Now Bullies—with Guns," U.S. News and World Report, May 3,1999, p. 24.

N. Eisenberg, The Caring Child (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992).

Survey (43 percent of children afraid to use school bathrooms), cited by A. Mulrine, "Once Bullied, Now Bullies—with Guns," p. 24.

Research (1 to 7 ratio of school children as bully or victim), cited by C. Goodnow,"Bullying Is a Complex, Dangerous Game in Which Everyone's a Player," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sept. 1,1999. [http://www. seattle-pi.com/lifestyle/bull1at.shtml].

Research by the National Education Association quoted by S. Fried and P. Fried, Bullies and Victims (New York: M. Evans, 1996), p. xii.

E. Midlarksy and J. H. Bryan, "Affect Expressions and Children's Imitative Altruism," Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1972, 6, 195-203.

Research (repeated viewing of violence reduces kindness) by R. S. Drabman and M. H.Thomas,"Does Media Violence Increase Children's Toleration of Real-Life Aggression?" Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 418-421.

M. Levine, See No Evil (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998), p. 43. Levine quotes R. E. Goranson, "Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior:A Review of Experimental Research," in L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Orlando, Fla.:Acad-emic Press, 1970).

M. Hoffman, "Parent Discipline and the Child's Consideration for Others," Child Development, 1963, 34, 573-588.

0 0

Post a comment