Caregiver Training Courses

Caregiver Training Ebooks

The caregiver training e-book gives a training course on how to provideassistance to another person who is ill, disabled or needs help with daily activities. It can also serve as a useful guide to the individuals in the need of help. The product deals in physical, mental, social, and psychological needs and well-being of both the caregivers and the elderly person requiring care. Everyone needs a little help from time to time and while many seniors lean on the friends and family members for support, there may be some instances in which it's necessary to seek additional assistance or long-term care which was why this product was created by the author. This caregiver product is a practical guide created by the author who is an expert in the field. This product embeds in it several training sections in which each section gives detailed information on how to provide assistance to people who are ill, disabled, or aged. This product is a trusted and 100% guarantee to provide the necessary details needed in caring for the physically challenged, aged and ill individuals. The product is also an essential overview of issues from Alzheimer's to diabetes to strokes.

Caregiver Training Ebooks Summary

Rating:

4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebooks
Author: Kenneth Watts
Price: $15.00

Caregiver Training Ebook Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This e-book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

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Helping your new caregiver get started

If you possibly can, stay at home with your caregiver during her first few days on the job. If you are asking a previous provider to orient your new caregiver, plan to have them spend anywhere from three or four days to one week together. Take the new caregiver around your neighborhood, go to the park, introduce her to your neighbors. Be sure to show her where the closest medical facility is for emergency purposes. The time you are able to spend together with your new caregiver will give you a feel for each other and for your respective styles of dealing with your children and setting up their day. It will also give the caregiver and your children time to get acquainted without the stress of an abrupt transition.

Reviewing your caregivers performance

A caregiver's job is basically unsupervised, so it's especially important to make time to communicate your approval and expectations. Be sure to schedule regular performance and salary reviews, and remember to include the terms and approximate dates of these reviews in your work agreement. If you and your caregiver have been having regular informal monthly meetings, there should be no surprises at review time. Think of the review as an opportunity for you to talk with your caregiver about her accomplishments, challenges, and goals for the future. This is also a good time for your caregiver to honestly discuss with you how she thinks the job is going. It's a good idea to schedule your first review after three months. This is usually just a time to share feedback, with no adjustment in salary. At this time you may want to make some changes in your caregiver's schedule, or add or subtract a few duties or job responsibilities. Be sure to document any revisions from your original work...

Curfew livein caregivers

If you feel strongly about the hour you want your caregiver in for the evening, establish a curfew. If you're the kind who worries until everyone in the household is safely home, you'll resent having your sleep interrupted while waiting for your caregiver to return, or being disturbed when she does come home. You might have later curfews on weekends or when she doesn't have to care for the children the next day you might arrange that she call you if she will be home later than usual. You may or may not encounter caregiver resistance on this point, but remember, it's your home and your job. Set it up the way it feels right for you.

Treat your caregiver with respect

Your caregiver is entrusted with your most vulnerable family members - your children. You'll want to show her how important her role is to you. Introduce her to your friends and family. (Ask her first how she would like to be introduced babysitter nanny by her first name as Ms., Mrs., or Miss ) Give your caregiver and your children the room to develop a caring relationship. Listen to what she has to say about them. Never undermine her authority in front of them. If you find you can't treat your caregiver respectfully, she is not right for your family.

Do you want a livein or liveout caregiver

Many families are initially interested in having a live-in caregiver because of convenience and slightly greater flexibility. Although you will need to arrange specific, limited hours and duties for your live-in caregiver, the very fact that she does live in your home may make her more available for emergency child care (when you unexpectedly have to work late, for example) or occasional additional care (perhaps on a Saturday night). Parents who frequently need care for late or overnight hours may benefit from live-in care. Of course, families negotiate in advance how they will reimburse the caregiver for such extras. In some cases, finances may dictate hiring a live-in caregiver. Live-in caregivers generally receive a lower salary because they are also receiving room and board. However, in many parts of the country, live-in and live-out care is equally expensive. Live-out caregivers might also be very difficult to find in rural and suburban areas where public transportation is...

Building a Partnership with Your Caregiver

Congratulations You've completed the difficult task of finding someone you feel good about to care for your children. You're paving the way for a productive ongoing relationship between your new caregiver and your family. But no matter how good you feel about your choice, minor conflicts are inevitable in a relationship as intimate and important as the one you will develop with your caregiver. Communication, fairness, respect, flexibility, and cooperation are key ingredients for keeping even the most compatible situation going smoothly. Here are some tips for making the relationship work

Before your caregiver begins

If your caregiver is from another area, collect maps of your town or city showing surrounding areas and public transportation routes. Your local Chamber of Commerce or Visitor's Bureau may be able to provide a new resident packet that contains brochures and maps of the local area, information about interesting places to visit, and, if you request it, information about religious organizations and local recreation areas. This information will be very useful for a caregiver who is relocating to work with your family. No matter where she lives now, send your caregiver a letter about and a picture of your family, house, and other people or places relevant to your life. Many families make family videos to send to their future caregivers. If your children like to draw, you may also want to encourage them to create drawings to send to the caregiver or to decorate her room with them. Encourage your caregiver to send a picture of herself which you can put up where the children can see it. This...

When do you want your caregiver to start

Allow yourself plenty of time to find a caregiver. The recruiting, screening, and interviewing process can take several weeks, whether you're looking on your own or working with an agency. On the other hand, a caregiver who is available to work when you first start looking may not be able to wait for several weeks until you need her. If you find someone you feel is right, be prepared to hire her earlier than you expected. You might even appreciate the extra time this gives you, your children, and the caregiver to get used to each other. Flexibility on your part can be a great asset in attracting the right candidate.

If the caregiver doesnt work outg

A reliable agency will have a written replacement refund policy that spells out its obligations to you if either you or the caregiver decide to end your working relationship. Usually agencies specify replacement refund periods ranging from 30 to 90 days. (Sixty days seems to be most common, although occasionally an agency replacement caregiver, while others will refund all or part of your money. It's important to read such policies carefully before you begin to work with an agency.

You and your caregiver

Even when your child is in someone else's care while you work, remember that you will always be the most important person to your child. But your child's relationship with a caregiver is important too, and so it's important that you and your care-giver work together and continue to talk about your child's needs. Parents often feel so happy and grateful to have found someone good to care for their child that they don't express their own concerns for fear of offending the provider. Talk things over with your caregiver regularly, no matter what kind of care your child is in. Lack of communication can often lead to a build-up of tensions and affect how you feel about your child's care. Make sure your expectations are clearly understood. Discuss exactly what the job will require and what you expect of each other. Speaking frankly from the start of your relationship is important. Ask questions, share information often, and be available to discuss your child.

Related and Unrelated Nonparental Infant Caregivers

Infants commonly encounter a social world that extends beyond the immediate family. In some societies, multiple-infant caregiving is natural (e.g., Bornstein et al., 1996 Morelli and Tronick, 1991). Today, the majority of infants in the United States are cared for on a regular basis by someone in addition to a parent (Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen, in Vol. 3 of this Handbook). A common form of nonparental familial care involves relatives such as grandparents (Smith and Drew, in Vol. 3 of this Handbook). Parents with infants are very likely to receive support from their own parents (Eggebeen, 1992 Eggebeen and Hogan, 1990 Spitze and Logan, 1992). Maternal grandmothers are acknowledged to play an especially critical role in the life of infants of teen and ethnic minority mothers (McAdoo, in Vol. 4 of this Handbook Moore and Brooks-Gunn, in Vol. 3 of this Handbook). Nonfamilial daycare providers constitute the other common participants in infant caregiving. Most provide infants with care...

House rules for caregivers

Every family has its own stated or unstated rules and no one knows the rules of your household better than you do. When you have a caregiver, particularly one who lives with you, you may have to spell out some rules you have always taken for granted. Don't assume anything. If you expect a certain behavior, be clear about what it is. It's better to err on the side of being too specific, rather than too vague. Discuss house rules before your caregiver starts to work, even on a trial basis. Some families find that it is best to include their house rules as part of the work agreement that they negotiate with their caregiver at the beginning of the family caregiver relationship. Avoid the temptation to postpone worrying about house rules until a problem comes up. If you handle the situation in advance you can spare yourself and your caregiver future misunderstandings and possibly hard feelings.

Sharing a caregiver

One way to cut down on the expense of hiring an in-home caregiver is to hire someone jointly with another family. Sometimes called nanny sharing, this arrangement can greatly reduce your costs. Sharing a caregiver can be complicated, however. Instead of simply working things out between your family and the caregiver, you have to consider the needs, schedule, and style of a second family. It becomes even more important for everyone involved to know what's expected of them and what the boundaries are. Clear and frequent communication is essential.

YesNoHaving someone live in your home

O O I have an extra bedroom for the caregiver. O O I feel comfortable sharing my home and my private time with my caregiver. I feel comfortable sharing the following, or can make arrangements for my caregiver to have her own If you have any questions about whether in-home child care is the best choice for you, this guide will provide an overview of the entire process of locating, selecting, and working with a caregiver. If you have further questions or need more information about any of the material in this guide, call the program that sent you this booklet.

Older toddler years to yearsandmonths

Feel that your child is safe, happy, and treated with respect and affection. Think about what will make your child feel comfortable. Some children need small, quiet groups. Others do better in larger groups with lots of activity. You are the best judge of your own child's needs. Talk to the providers you visit about your child's personality and needs. Remember, too, that your child is growing and changing, and will have different needs in the future. Although it is impossible to anticipate all of these needs, thinking about some of them can minimize the number of changes you might have to make. Forming attachments with their care-givers is important for children, so consider your tions carefully before making a change.

Common Sense Rules For Parents

Here are some common sense rules for parents caregivers who want to help children have a positive childhood. Did you know that research has found that remarkable things can happen if parents and caregivers spent at least 15 minutes of undivided time a day listening and talking with their children Research also tells us that children really do look to their parents and caregivers for advice and help about difficult choices and decisions. Whether focused on bullying as is this module of the initiative or on general principles of healthy development and behavior, the messages exchanged between children and their parents and caregivers in just these 15 minutes or more a day, can be instrumental in building a healthier and safer future for children as individuals, as family members, and as active and engaged participants in the life of their communities. NOTE Terminology in this booklet is inter-changeable. Your child is for parents. Children is for schools, communities, parents, and...

Spiritual Development

The renowned psychologist Erik Erikson believed that a child's ability to trust is directly related to her ability to trust her primary caregivers. If the first people she comes in contact with, most often mom and dad, are consistent if they offer her stability and ongoing, reliable care, she will learn the concept of trust. She will believe the world is safe, based on the safety of her own home. On the other hand, if her first world is unsafe if her parents are abusive or neglectful she will feel that the rest of the world will be as well. If her primary caregivers are not reliable to provide for her most basic needs, she will inherently believe the same to be true about others. Rather than developing relationships built on trust, hers will be built on mistrust. Erikson, therefore, believed that the primary task of an infant's caregivers is building trust. Trust creates more trust. As parents, grandparents, or guardians, you are a young girl's first line of defense. She needs to...

The Four Phases of Attachment

The second phase begins gradually at the age of two-to-three months and lasts until the child is approximately seven months old. During this phase, a process of complex behavior begins to be directed toward one or more figures (including crying when the caregiver leaves and stopping crying when the caregiver returns). The third phase begins between six and nine months and lasts until the child is approximately three years old. During this phase, the young child strives to maintain closeness with one or more care-givers through locomotion, direct communication, and other direct social signals. Three primary attachment behaviors are used

Think I might be pregnant

Your health care giver will confirm whether you are pregnant and, if so, estimate the delivery date of your baby. The sooner you know for sure, the sooner you can begin to get the care you and your baby will need, called prenatal care. You will need to see your health care giver about 9 to 13 times You may also want to attend childbirth education classes later in your pregnancy to learn the ways to make the delivery of your baby healthy and easier. Your health care giver can help you choose the right class for you.

Your familys needs Location

Unless you have a caregiver who comes to your home, you'll have to think about who will take your child to and from care. If two adults share this responsibility, the location of your child's care will need to be convenient to both commuting routes. And if you have more than one child in care, you'll have to think about coordinating those locations and hours as well.

Job responsibilities

Problems that arise between families and caregivers often occur as a result of mis- understandings about the caregiver's duties. From the family's perspective, the caregiver may not be doing all she was hired to do. From the caregiver's perspec- The importance of being clear about your expectations can't be overemphasized. While it is not possible to anticipate every little task that may be called for by the time you have hired a caregiver you should have a pretty good idea of what her responsibilities will include. After all, you already were aware of your basic requirements when you started your search for a caregiver. In preparing for your search, you probably made a preliminary list of her daily and weekly responsibilities. During the interview, you discussed with her what her duties would be. Now you simply need to write these job responsibilities down as part of the work agreement.

Typical Behaviors Seen with an Anxious Attachment

Anxiously attached infants, toddlers, and preschoolers have not experienced consistent availability of and comfort from their caregivers when their environment has proven threatening. Their requests for attention are often met with rebuff, indifference, or with inconsistent comfort. They become anxious about the availability of their caregiver, fearing that the caregiver will be unresponsive or ineffectively responsive when needed. They often show anger toward their caregiver for their lack of responsiveness and perhaps as a way to punish their caregiver in the hope that their caregiver will become more consistently available. Anxiously attached infants, toddlers, and preschoolers do not feel free to explore their environment without worry, so they cannot achieve the same mastery and confidence in themselves as securely attached children.

Encourage flexibility

While a clear understanding of roles, duties, and expectations is essential from the start, you and your caregiver will also want to have a mutual commitment to meeting unexpected needs. For example, if you are late coming home one day, you might really appreciate your caregiver taking the initiative to start dinner or bathe the children, even though these tasks fall outside of her usual responsibilities. By the same token, if she has had a particularly tough week with a cranky three-year-old, you might be able to arrange to get home a little earlier on Friday afternoon, to give the caregiver a few extra hours of free time.

Plan for regular communication

Busy schedules will often squeeze out opportunities to talk with your caregiver, so don't leave them to chance. You may want your caregiver to keep a written journal of your children's day. Or you might try using a wipe-off memo board or the memo function on your answering machine, if you have one, to leave messages for each other. Try to schedule a time to get together every month, perhaps over coffee, so you and your caregiver can assess how your arrangement is working. Use the occasion to discuss questions or concerns either of you may not have thought to bring up earlier, as well as to talk about the children's changing needs.

Absolute nonnegotiable rules

Most families have certain rules that take precedence above all others. Any violation of these absolute rules would probably cause irreparable damage to the family caregiver relationship. In fact, the family might decide a violation of these rules is cause to dismiss the caregiver. It's very important that you make it absolutely clear to the caregiver what you will not tolerate. You'll feel better for having set the rules and for explaining to your caregiver where you stand. She'll appreciate knowing what's expected of her. Plan to spend some time helping your caregiver get started.

When should you finalize your work agreement

It is wise to draw up a simple work agreement before the caregiver starts to work for the family and certainly no later than after her first few days on the job. Avoid the temptation to do without a work agreement entirely because things went so well during the interview. The best time to complete any agreement is when you are all on good terms, not when there are problems. Keep in mind that the work agreement represents the results of your employer employee negotiations it is for the protection of both you and the caregiver.

Other rules to consider

If you have rules about television viewing, let your caregiver know how much is acceptable for the children - and her - to watch when she is on duty. If you have a VCR or subscribe to cable TV, let her know your policy on these. Tell your caregiver how you feel about her making or receiving personal phone calls on the job. Do you mind if her family or friends call her at your home Until what hours If personal calls are acceptable to you, do you want her to limit her phone conversations to when your children may be napping or otherwise occupied Make sure you talk to your caregiver about how you feel about her having guests during work hours. What are the rules about guests if she is staying with your children while you are gone for any extended length of time (overnight in particular) g Let your caregiver know how you want your home phone answered during the day. How much information is the caregiver to disclose to unknown callers For exam- ple, is the caregiver to give out your work...

What an inhome placement agency does

First, the agency staff members will help you clarify your child care needs. They'll assist you in defining your expectations and preparing a job description that accurately reflects what your position involves and the type of individual you think will be most suitable for your family. They will advise you on caregiver qualifications, appropriate pay, and benefits. Then, they will either review their pool of applicants or recruit specifically for you. After screening applicants by phone or in person, a reliable agency will not only collect references, but verify them all, by calling and speaking directly to the person who gave each reference. Generally, the agency will select one or two candidates for you to interview. If you are looking for a live-in caregiver, most agencies will provide you with a written portfolio on each applicant, summarizing her background, training, experience, and references. At your request, some agencies will conduct background checks on potential...

Keep appropriate boundaries

Although over time your relationship with your caregiver could develop into a friendship, remember that your roles in relation to each other are primarily professional. She may not want to hear about certain aspects of your personal life, and In the final analysis, good communication can head off or solve many of the problems that may arise. If you and your children are generally pleased with your caregiver, it will be well worth the time and effort to straighten out relatively minor difficulties. The situation you now find yourself in will vary, depending on the sort of caregiver you have chosen. But whether your caregiver is an older woman who goes home to her family every night, a local college student, a young man or woman from another part of the country, or an au pair from Europe, you have chosen her carefully, and you deserve to sit back, comfortable in the knowledge that your children are in good hands. With mutual respect, hard work, and communication, having an in-home child...

Use of your things and offlimits areas

There is a fine line between having someone live in your home to perform a job and having your privacy invaded. If there are areas in your house - perhaps the master bedroom or your personal office - to which you would prefer that your care-giver not have access, tell her. The same is true of your possessions. If you don't want the caregiver to have anything to do with your stereo equipment, jewelry, or other items, make this clear. By the same token, if you have a live-in caregiver, respect her privacy, too. Short of an emergency, for instance, there is probably no reason for you to enter her room.

How to find another family

If you don't know another family who might want to share child care, you can use many of the same ideas and suggestions in this guide for recruiting a caregiver to help find another family. You might also want to look in Here are some questions to ask yourself and the other family to help all of you decide if sharing a caregiver will work. Ages of the children. Are you looking for playmates who are the same age as your children Would you consider sharing a caregiver with another family whose children are different ages than yours Salary, raises, and bonuses. What can each family afford Timing for performance reviews and increases for raises should also be discussed before you hire a caregiver. Will you offer sick and vacation days What about health insurance Communication. Working with a caregiver and another family requires putting a lot of effort into communication. Are you willing to take the time to make sure this works If not, you may risk losing the caregiver and your...

Starting Off on the Right Foot

In addition to fulfilling your legal obligations as an employer, your ability to manage your caregiver is an important ingredient in the success of your arrangement. Consider the following points Prepare house rules in advance, particularly in the case of live-in caregivers. In some cases, you may want to include house rules in your work agreement. Don't hire a caregiver without a written work agreement. After the two of you have both agreed on job responsibilities, hours, salary, benefits, etc., summarize the results of your negotiations on paper. (See page 63 for a sample work agreement.) Set a probationary or trial period so you and your caregiver have a chance to see if your relationship will work out. Arrange opportunities to talk informally about how things seem to be going. If you are working with an agency, you'll probably tie your probationary period to the agency's refund replacement policy. If you've hired a caregiver on your own, consider a 30- or 60-day trial period....

In some states state income tax withholding

If you use an agency to help you find your in-home caregiver, the agency may also strongly encourage you to pay for benefits, such as health insurance, vacation, and or sick time. In the past few years, the business of training, recruiting, and placing in-home providers (or nannies) has expanded rapidly. Today there are local and national agencies that specialize in connecting families with caregivers. These agencies often charge substantial placement fees for their services. Each agency has its own policies and procedures, which may include refund and or replacement policies in the event the arrangement does not work. Another way to find in-home care is to advertise for applicants yourself. Whichever route you choose, caution is important. There are no government-required qualifications for in-home caregivers or standards for the agencies and schools that place and train them. Regardless of how you have located your potential caregiver and what prior screening has been done, be sure...

The people who give the care

In both homes and centers, caregivers trained in child development or early childhood education, as well as basic health and safety skills, generally do a better job. The best training for an early childhood caregiver is coursework, combined with practical, supervised work directly with children. Direct experience with children is important, of course, and the background and personality of the caregiver will affect the quality of your child's care. Caregivers who provide quality child care must understand children's behavior and efforts to communicate, must respond to each Caregivers should have special training for the age groups they work with for infants and toddlers, for example, or for school-age children. Ongoing training is also important. Many states now insist that caregivers have some training every year. In other states it's not a requirement and you'll still need to find out for yourself whether a caregiver has had any training.

Defining job responsibilities

Now is the time to make up your list of all the tasks that you want your caregiver to perform. Think about the typical day you envision for your children in the care of the person you hire. What do you want them to do together Play Read Go on outings Work on projects Try to be realistic. A caregiver may not be able to do a good job of taking care of b

Foreign au pairs myths and facts

Most of the suggestions in this publication are more applicable to the process of selecting an American than a foreign in-home caregiver. If you are interested in hiring a caregiver from out of the country, contact one of the federally approved agencies that specialize in this type of care. You will find names and addresses of a few of these agencies at the back of this guide.

Costs of placement agency services

Fees for child care placement services vary widely, depending on the type of services the agency provides. Agencies specializing in placements of live-in caregivers usually charge fees of between 500 and 3,000, based on a percentage of the caregiver's annual salary. Some charge 20 , for example, or ask for the equivalent of the care-giver's first two to four weeks' pay. Agencies that provide emergency or sick-care services employ caregivers and charge you a daily placement fee plus an hourly salary for the caregiver ranging from 10 to 18 per hour.

Child feels conflicted about close relationships

Caregiver The parent gives support and sensitive care some, but not all, of the time. It is not consistent. Child The child doesn't know what to expect from the parent.The child does not explore their surroundings when the parent is around. When the parent goes away, the child is anxious and distressed. When the parent comes back, the child has mixed reactions.The child goes back and forth between pushing the caregiver away and then seeking comfort. It's hard for the child to calm down.

What does your grandchild expect

Children expect different things from relationships, depending on how their families treat them.To learn about what children expect, researchers have looked at how children are treated at home and how they respond to brief separations from their parents. Children's responses tell a lot about the type of care they have been given.Their responses also show the kind of relationships they have and what they expect from the caregiver in the future. (For a description of attachment relationships, see fact sheet 2 The Importance of Close Relationships) The following descriptions outline four general types of relationships. Each looks at how a parent or other caregiver behaves towards the child, how the young child reacts when the parent is present and during brief separations, and what the child's expectations are about relationships.1'2

Important Tips to Keep in Mind

Families tell us that finding the right in-home caregiver often involves a long search, usually six to eight weeks but sometimes longer. It is a process that will probably be repeated several times before your children outgrow the need for care. Do everything you can to ensure a good match between your family and the care-giver you choose. From the start there are a number of ways to improve your chances of having your choice work out well.

Other public bulletin boards

Look around your community for other places to hang a flyer. Public libraries, children's stores, self-service laundries, YWCA's, and health clubs are just a few of the spots likely to have public bulletin boards. As the information highway becomes more and more of a reality, even electronic bulletin boards may offer a way to recruit a caregiver.

Conducting a background check

With the caregiver's permission, a background-check agency can conduct a search where the caregiver says she has lived. Depending on the type of check you would you'll receive will reflect the caregiver's background for the past seven years or reveal certain information which a potential caregiver did not give you during If you are using a placement agency, it is important to know that the agencies vary in their background-checking procedures. Most placement agencies generally have two ways of checking the background of a caregiver. Some agencies will contract with the same background-check agencies that you can hire independently and will include the fee for the check in the placement fee. The second way a majority of placement agencies check backgrounds is through extensive reference checking accompanied by a letter of good conduct. A letter of good conduct generally comes from the local police department in the place(s) the caregiver has lived and certifies that her criminal record...

For more information call the program that sent you this booklet

This handbook gives you general information about in-home care providers so you can get an idea of whether you may want to consider this type of care. If you're seriously thinking about hiring an in-home care provider or if you'd just like to know more, call again. An in-home child care consultant can give you more practical advice, suggest placement agencies, and give you tips on how to find your own care. The consultant can also send you other useful publications to help you evaluate this option for your family, write a job description, locate and choose a caregiver, and understand your responsibilities as an employer.

Violations and poor quality care

Occasionally, you may hear horror stories about children being abused or maltreated by their caregivers. Fortunately, such situations are very rare. Be wary of a center or family child care provider who is reluctant to have you drop in unannounced, discourages or prevents parents from talking with one another, or is unwilling to discuss any concern you have about your child or the daily program. Remember to ask for and check references before you make a final decision about a care-giver. You can also call your state's licensing office to review the caregiver's record.

For family child care and centers

In the case of a disagreement, let your provider know how important the issue is to you. Remember that young children are most comfortable with familiar settings and people they already know and trust. If you have a caregiver that you feel is meeting your most important needs, it's usually well

Be thoughtful and sensitive

You will want to have a warm relationship with anyone who plays such an important role in your family. You are hiring a person, not a robot. You may want to remember her family as well as her with small gifts for the holidays. Be willing to contribute positively to the relationship. Provide adequate time off, and encourage your caregiver to do things that are important to her - for example, make friends, take classes, have hobbies, and exercise. In-home industry professional organizations, such as the International Nanny Association (INA) and the National Association of Nannies (NAN), provide support and networking for interested caregivers on a national, regional, and local level. Homesickness and loneliness are the two major reasons caregivers leave their positions.

Comparing types of child care

Family child care homes typically care for up to six children, including the caregiver's own young children. The care is offered in the home of the person who provides the care, who is often called a provider. Large family child care homes, an option in some states, usually have one caregiver and one assistant providing care for 7 to 12 children in the home of the caregiver. In-home care is child care provided in your own home by someone you have hired perhaps a nanny, a student, a foreign au pair, or a sitter. In-home care may be provided by someone who comes in every day, or by someone who lives in your home. Although in-home care can be the most flexible and convenient type of child care, it is usually the most expensive. Some people find their caregivers by word-of-mouth or advertising, while others work with a nanny placement agency.

Whats Wrong With Your Current Response

Is it possible that you or others might be encouraging his bossiness For instance, might someone (parent, teacher, sibling, peer, relative, caregiver, coach, or yourself) be intentionally or unintentionally reinforcing the attitude by labeling it assertive, independent, confident, outgoing, or a leadership capability Tune into your own behavior to make sure you are not reinforcing it in any way. Also, are you sure your kid is quite clear that you and other caregivers do not approve of his attitude and why you do not approve What have you said to make sure he understands your displeasure How could you be clearer

Parenting During Intensely Stressful Life Experiences

Traumatic experiences in early childhood actually affect how the brain organizes itself. Infants and young children require a relatively calm environment for their brains to develop in a predictable fashion. Children's brains develop best when they experience moderate exposure to stress while under the protection of a consistent, available, and safe primary caregiver. Exposure to highly dramatic, sudden, unpredictable, or threatening experiences requires a child's neuroendocrine, immune, and nervous systems to respond in a way that helps him cope. If this response happens too frequently or randomly, it can have a permanent negative impact on him, leaving him with a poor ability to control his emotions and moods or to think and learn properly.

Prescreening Candidates

Not everyone who applies for your child care position will be qualified or appropriate. Most placement agencies will prescreen potential candidates for your position, but if you are looking for a caregiver on your own, you'll save a great deal of time by prescreening candidates before you interview them. Try to set aside a few blocks of uninterrupted time to talk on the telephone with potential caregivers. If you are busy when an applicant first calls, take her phone number and ask for a good time to reach her. If you have an answering machine, you might want to put a special message on it for a while just after you have placed an ad. Ask people who respond to your ad to leave their names and telephone numbers, a good time to contact them, and some information about their child care experience. You may also want to consider getting a voice mailbox from your telephone system or using an answering service. Even if you are hiring a caregiver for the first time, you will quickly get a...

Questions to Ask a Placement Agency

What types of caregivers do you place (full-time, part-time, live-in or live-out, temporary, etc.) 3. How long does it usually take to make a placement Do you think you will be able to locate a caregiver for me within the time I have 9. What is the minimum age requirement to be listed as a caregiver with your agency Choosing a Caregiver Whether or not you have decided to search independently for a caregiver or to employ the services of an agency, sooner or later you will have lined up one or more candidates for the job. The way you screen, interview, and hire a candidate will be pretty much the same no matter which method you have used to get to this point. This section of the guide and the next will take you through the steps of choosing and hiring a caregiver.

Maternal Responsibilities During Interaction

The mother-child relationship is initially embedded in acts of caregiving such as feeding, bathing, playing, and responding to the baby's signs of distress. A particularly challenging part of relating to the infant is learning how to monitor and read the nonverbal language of the infant. The baby has an organized set of nonverbal symbols that communicate the basic message of continue or stop this action. The engagement and disengagement cues of infants have been identified as present right at birth (Barnard, 1976 Sumner and Spietz, 1994). Examples of potent engagement cues are mutual gaze, reaching toward the caregiver, smiling, and turning to the caregiver. Subtle disengagement cues are more numerous and include back arching, crawling away, halt hand (putting hand up with palm facing out in a stoplike gesture), overhand beating movement of arms, pulling away, spitting up, tray pounding, and withdrawing from an active to a sleep state. There are also subtle engagement and...

How to select a placement agency

Keep in mind, too, that some in-home placement agencies are not large or sophisticated organizations. Many operate out of the owner's home with just two or three part-time employees. Because of this, you are likely to get an answering machine or an answering service when you call. To get the best service, be sure to leave a clear message, including the reason for your call. If you want a brochure or need to speak with someone, state that in your message, along with your name, address, telephone number, the best time to reach you, and when you need a caregiver to begin.

Inhome child care providers nannies au pairs sitters

During the interview at your home, you'll have a chance to see how the caregiver and your child initially react to one another. Ask as many questions as you need to get a firm idea of the personality and qualifications of the person you're interviewing. When asking questions remember to pay attention to more than words. Does the person seem organized Friendly Relaxed Does he or she seem to have thought about these issues before Do you feel comfortable around him or her Trust any instincts you might have, even if you can't explain why, as you decide whether or not to hire this person.

So What Is the Truth about This Debate

Both nature and nurture interact to form a child's personality and inner sense of who she is. Additionally, the developmental age of a child contributes to the relative importance of the nature versus nurture influences. For example, in the first three years, a child's personality is strongly molded by the interaction between her parents (or her primary caregiver) and her temperament. As she grows older, her biological temperament becomes less important. Instead, her environment (the impact of the people around her, the places she goes, the things she sees and learns, the stresses she experiences) interacts with her genetic vulnerabilities to play the largest part in determining her personality. Researchers are discovering that even when we have a genetic weakness (making us prone to a certain disease or characteristic), we still have a certain amount of influence on whether or not, and how strong this will appear. Our brains are also very plastic biology can shape behavior and...

Mothering As A Holding Environment For The Child

To this point we have dealt with attainment of maternal role during pregnancy and the first year of life. Mercer's (1985,1986) work embraces the first year of the child's life, yet it deals primarily with the mother's own perception of her role, how well she fulfills it, and how satisfying it is to her. The next step is to explore what it is that mothers actually do with children. We focus on mothers because in our experience, we have found that, in the vast majority of cultures around the world, the mother remains the primary caregiver of the young child. It is true in many cultures that the extended female family members such as mothers, mothers-in-law, sisters, and aunts are integrated into the caring role, either directly caring for the children or indirectly by caring for the mother and her household responsibilities. Stern and Bruschweiler-Stern (1998) described the psychological support women seek from other women after the birth of their baby. They described it in the same...

Therapeutic Interventions

Assist the parents in contacting the proper child protection authorities and completing the required forms if they suspect abuse from another caregiver or support them to disclose their own involvement. 6. Instruct the parents to report any suspected abuse by another caregiver to the state authorized child protection services (CPS) agency or local police department and to keep notes on behaviors, physical marks, or other suspicious evidence in regard to the child.

The Theoretical Significance Attached To Parenting During Infancy

The exceptional place of infancy has also been emphasized by other theorists, including embryol-ogists and ethologists (e.g., Bowlby, 1969 Lorenz, 1935 1970 Spemann, 1938 Tinbergen, 1951). In the view of those who study developmental physiology and animal behavior, the immature nervous system is in an especially plastic state, and during sensitive periods structural developments and behavioral tendencies are maximally susceptible to influence by specific types of experience (see Bornstein, 1989b). The sensitive period concept typically assigns great weight to infant experiences because it holds that experiences that occur within its boundaries are likely to have long-lasting influence and that, once that period had passed, the same experience will no longer exert the same formative influence. Demonstrations of sensitive periods in lower animals (such as imprinting, as in the ugly duckling) accord biological and scientific credibility to the potency of experience in infancy in general,...

Typical Behaviors Seen with an Avoidant Attachment

Avoidant attached infants, toddlers, and preschoolers perceive their primary caregivers as completely insensitive to them and dislike or want to avoid contact with them. These young children avoid, downplay, or deny their needs for comfort and protection they are often described by others as a loner or very self-reliant even at a young age. In the presence of their primary care-giver, they commonly display one or more of the signs and symptoms of grief normally experienced by infants, toddlers, and preschoolers who face a total loss and absence of their mothers (protest, anger, despair, and detachment).

Two scenarios and what to do

If there's one thing you can count on as a parent, it's that the unexpected will happen, and probably when it's least convenient. That's the nature of raising children. Having backup caregivers in place for emergencies and being aware of resources available to you through work and in your community will help you feel less stressed if the unexpected does happen.

Your legal role as an employer

Sometimes employers or caregivers want to treat their wage relationship informally by not reporting it to the Internal Revenue Service, and not following federal employment regulations. This is illegal. It also leaves parents unable to claim the child care tax credit or make use of any child care benefits (such as Dependent Care Assistance Programs) offered by their employers.

Never assume that a license alone means that a program meets standards of high quality

Never assume that a referral means that a program has been screened. In many cases, the child care referrals that you receive are based on self-reported information from caregivers who are operating legally, but whose services may not have been screened. This handbook and the conversations you have with a child care consultant will give you the information and ideas you need to decide whether the care you choose meets your requirements.

Regulation what it does and does not guarantee

Child care is regulated in many ways. Usually, there are health and safety codes at the local level, and licensing requirements at the state level. While most states check caregivers for criminal records or records of child abuse, the types of care that are regulated, how they are defined, how often they are inspected, and the specific standards that are required differ greatly from state to state.

Teaching Parents to Use Healing Stories

The emphasis of this book so far has been on professional caregivers telling therapeutic tales either to or in collaboration with children. However, parents, grandparents, and significant others in the life of the child may have greater contact and intimacy with the child than a therapist who is only available for a once-a-week consultation. If we can teach parents (the term I will use to include all close persons involved in the child's day-to-day life) to relate healing stories as they share a family meal, sit on a bedside at night, or drive along in a car, the benefits of storytelling can be enhanced through more exposure to therapeutic tales and better parent-child communication. But first, let me address an issue that does not really fall within the parameters of this book, yet is something of which every therapist in the child and adolescent areas needs to be cognizant, and which it would be remiss of me to overlook the role of parents in influencing the conduct or behavior of...

With a Disorganized Attachment

Infants, toddlers, and preschoolers with a disorganized attachment perceive their primary caregivers as terribly frightening, abusive, or unavailable. They often become incoherently angry and controlling in their relationships with others. Though deep down they long for affection, they outwardly act removed, distant, distrustful and may become intensely anxious, depressed, or hostile if they are pushed into relating with someone else who shows kindness, warmth or tries close physical contact. These children are often superficially engaging and charming, lack impulse control, are destructive, exploitative, manipulative and chronically angry, are not affectionate on their parents' terms, cannot tolerate external limits or control, trust no one, and often lack remorse and empathy. They are often diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

Grandparents wellbeing and childrens development

In many families, grandparents take on their roles as children's caregivers in times of crisis. In other families, this change occurs in a gradual or planned way. Regardless of how the change occurs, grandparents may feel overwhelmed by the new responsibilities. Stress and depression may arise if the grandparent is dealing with their own health problems, trying to handle a grandchild's physical or behavioral problems, or is not receiving enough support from outside sources or other family members.3

Its best to line up several different backup options

Remember that preregistration is generally required by organizations and programs. Be sure to ask ahead of time. Try to visit any centers, family child care providers, or other substitute caregivers you're considering. You and your child will both be more at ease when you finally need care if you have a chance to get to know the people and places ahead of time.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

The other major disruptive behavioral disorder seen in this category is Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Children with this disorder are often described as being constantly and continuously negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile toward their parents. These kids argue constantly, resist parents' authority, and defy or refuse to comply with their parents' wishes while deliberately doing things they know will annoy them. They are often angry, blaming, vindictive, and spiteful in a way that significantly interferes with the normal functioning of the family. Their stubbornness and resistance to directions, unwillingness to compromise, and deliberate continual testing of limits often leaves their parents extremely annoyed and exhausted. As the ODD child nears the end of the preschool age, it is apparent that the child's behaviors are consistently bringing out the worst in both the parent and child. ODD often occurs along with the diagnosis of ADHD, bipolar disorder, or Reactive...

Endless Fantasy and Imaginary Friends

A child's disappearance into her fantasy play allows her to accommodate her deepest wishes with imaginary gratification. By recalling the events of her day through fantasy play, she is often able to deal with and process overwhelming and incomprehensible elements of the real world. Your child is able to do and be in her fantasy world what she is unable to do or be in the real world. Fantasy also allows her to work through stressful relationships in ways that don't attract rejection or punishment. For example, she can act out negative feelings toward her parents, siblings, playmates, and caregivers. Your child can practice social skills with her imaginary friend in a non-threatening, self-reliant way. Imaginary friends can help the preschooler deal with missing or absent parents, upsetting friends, and powerful urges. Imaginary friends can provide a companion when lonely, a comfort after a time out, and even a figure to blame for misdeeds.

Step Dont Be Afraid to Say No

The only way your child will realize that the world does not revolve around him and that all his desires will not be met is by setting limits that reduce his expectations. Decide now what your limits are and what is unacceptable then no matter how demanding, annoying, and obnoxious his behavior is, do not give in when he crosses your line. It's the surest way for him to learn that demanding more than he deserves won't work. So don't let him win. Make sure you also spread your message to all other immediate caregivers in your kid's life. The more you are on board together with your new response, the faster this attitude will be squelched.

Is there Evidence of Differential Socialization of Narratives About Traumatic and Nontraumatic Events

Differential socialization of narratives about traumatic and nontrau-matic events may be particularly likely given the uniqueness of traumatic experiences and the strong emotions associated with them. Children may be especially dependent on parents or other caregivers to help them interpret such strong experiences and gain perspective on them. Because the children in the St. Peter tornado study engaged in conversation with their mothers, and because the dyads talked about both the traumatic event and nontraumatic events, we have the opportunity to examine this question. Our approach is to first discuss relations between maternal and child variables at each of the time points (4 months and 10 months after the storm) and then discuss relations over time (i.e., whether behavior at Session 1 was related to behavior at Session 2 in systematic ways). Within each of these sections, we first examined relations between the variables that define maternal style (relative degree of elaboration...

Workshops for Middle School

A, B, Cs of Community Service with Infants Toddlers In this two-week workshop, participants intern in local daycare centers, spending four hours daily working with infants and children up to age five and their caregivers. They develop activities and assist with a variety of classroom functions. They explore interactions, situations encountered, and learning about early childhood development.

The Tornado and Its Aftermath

Second, unlike many unfamiliar and stressful events, the tornado also prohibited concurrent interpretation by parents. None of the families who participated in the study had any prior personal experience with a destructive tornado. They certainly were not able to predict the storm's outcome. In addition, many mothers reported that as it became clear that the storm was severe and potentially life threatening, they exhibited negative coping behaviors such as crying, hyperventilating, praying for safety, and so forth. Even for mothers who were less obviously emotional, it was difficult if not impossible to engage in conversation. The families were crouched in small spaces (interior bathrooms) and under large pieces of furniture (desks) as the loud winds of the storm raged around them. Such circumstances virtually precluded the kind of conversations that are known to support children's subsequent recall (Haden, Ornstein, Ecker-man, & Didow, 2001 Tessler & Nelson, 1994). In short,...

What Can You Do If Your Child Is a Bully

Spend 15 minutes or more of quality time with your child every day. Gain thorough knowledge into who he or she is spending time with and what they are doing. It is easier for children or young people to change their aggressive behavior if they feel they are reasonably well liked and listened to by their parents caregivers.

Tracking my baby boys growth

When you take your baby for a checkup, he will be weighed and measured. Tracking your baby's growth on the charts on these pages can help you remember. It will provide a record if you see more than one health care giver. Your baby's steady growth in height and weight is one of the best signs that he is healthy. It is regular growth that counts, more than how much or how fast. Ask your baby's health care giver any questions you may have about your baby's growth.

After my baby is born

I You should go to your health care giver about 2-6 weeks after your baby is born. Make an appointment for this postpartum visit as soon as possible. If you have questions or problems before then, call your health care provider. I Ask your health care giver if you are protected against rubella. If not, get a shot to protect you before you leave the hospital. I Ask your health care giver about family planning. You can get pregnant again even if you are breastfeeding. Your body is not ready for another healthy pregnancy right now. I Call your care giver right away if you have any of the postpartum warning signs listed on page 47. I Many new mothers feel depressed, cry easily, or are just very tired. These feelings are often due to lack of sleep it doesn't mean you don't love your baby. If you have some of these feelings, you may want to talk to your family, a friend, or another mother about it. If you need help to cope with your feelings, call your health care giver. I Try to sleep when...

How to take care of minor problems

Call your baby's health care giver if it looks red, irritated, bleeds or oozes, or has a bad odor. Call baby's health care giver if your baby won't take liquids, can't keep them down, has a lot of diarrhea, or has diarrhea for longer than 12 hours. YOU SHOULD CALL YOUR BABY'S HEALTH CARE GIVER IMMEDIATELY IF YOUR BABY When you call the health care provider about your sick baby, write down the advice you get. There is space on the records of health checkups, beginning on page 69, to write your notes. Have available the telephone number of a pharmacy in case your care giver wants to phone in a prescription.

What happens at prenatal care visits

I Ask you questions about your health now and in the past (your medical history). Your answers about other pregnancies, health problems, illnesses (including sexually transmitted diseases), and your lifestyle will help your care giver decide the best care for you. With all of the changes in your body, regular visits will help make sure that you and your baby stay healthy. Your health care giver will Your health care giver may suggest other tests, depending upon your family history, your age or health, your racial or ethnic background. For example, amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) may be suggested for women who are 35 or older, to identify certain genetic problems that could affect their baby's health. Alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a blood test that could be suggested to find out if a baby may have spinal cord problems. DO exercise regularly. Ask your health care giver about starting or continuing to exercise. DO tell all your health care givers that you are pregnant...

Tracking my baby girls growth

When you take your baby for a checkup, she will be weighed and measured. Tracking your baby's growth on the charts on these pages can help you remember. It will provide a record if you see more than one health care giver. Your baby's steady growth in height and weight is one of the best signs that she is healthy. It is regular growth that counts, more than how much or how fast. Ask your baby's health care giver any questions you may have about your baby's growth. Ask your baby's health care giver if you have a question about what your baby is doing.

How to get the prenatal care I need

There are many kinds of health care professionals who can help you when you are pregnant. They may include doctors, nurses, nurse practitioners, nurse midwives, physician's assistants, nutritionists, dentists, and social workers. You and your care givers are a team, working to help assure that your baby is born healthy. It is important for you to keep all of your appointments when you are pregnant. Your care givers check your health. They talk with you about how your body is changing, and how your baby is growing. Tell them how you are feeling. Ask them any questions that you have. If you have health insurance, find out what expenses your insurance will cover. Also find out how to make sure that your baby will be covered by your health insurance from birth. Your health care giver will need to know the name of your insurance company and your policy number. Many local agencies also offer other services. Ask about legal aid, housing assistance, day care, transportation, mental health,...

Forces That Shape Parenting Infants

A critical step on the path to fully understanding parenting is to evaluate forces that first shape it. The origins of individual variation in maternal and paternal infant caregiving whether beliefs or behaviors are extremely complex, but certain factors seem to be of paramount importance (1) actual or perceived characteristics of infants, (2) biological determinants, (3) features of personality, and (4) contextual influences, including social situational factors, SES, and culture.

Qualitative Effects Stylistic Differences in Mother and Father Interaction

Fathers participate less than mothers in caregiving but spend a greater percentage of the time available for interaction in play activities than mothers do. In the United States, Kotelchuck (1976) found that fathers spent a greater percentage of their time with their infants in play (37.5 ) than mothers did (25.8 ), although in absolute terms mothers spent more time than fathers in play with their children. Similar findings have been reported from a longitudinal investigation of parent-infant interaction in England (Richards, Dunn, and Antonis, 1977). Playing with their infants at 30 and 60 weeks of age was the most common activity of fathers, and over 90 of the fathers played regularly with their infants. Lamb (1977) observed interactions among mothers, fathers, and infants in their homes when the infants 7 to 8 months of age and again when they were 12 to 13 months of age. Marked differences emerged in the reasons that fathers and mothers pick up infants Fathers were more likely to...

After Infancy Developmentally Based Mothering

Children's needs change throughout development as their own abilities mature. Mothering needs to reflect these changes. Connolly (2000), in a qualitative study of mothering, found that during the beginning of childhood mothers engaged in more caregiving tasks, meeting the basic needs of the children. By adolescence, mothers took on a more supportive role and became more involved in the emotional aspects of their children's lives. McBride (1987) further described the adolescent years as not only requiring a shift in mothering and parenting, but also a period of self-reflection for the mother as she has to learn to let go of her child and allow the child to become a person in her or his own right. It is difficult to discern the changes in mothering over time. Cultural factors, family patterns and traditions, personal beliefs, the presence or absence of risk factors, and the context of the environment all contribute to changes in the mothering role over the child's development....

Challenges In Mothering

Mothering can occur only within the context of a relationship between a mother and a child. Likewise, a child can survive to grow and develop only within the context of a caregiving relationship. It is clear that the most significant period of mothering appears to be during the early years while the child has the most dependency for care. The mother-child relationship is an asymmetrical relationship during this period, in which the child needs more and gives less than the mother. of primary caregivers Developing some autonomous actions Establishing a mental model of mother and other primary caregivers Decision making about eating preferences, favorite activities and toys, bedtime routines significant caregivers and extended family Expanding emotional literacy and understanding rights of others expression of feelings Encouraging opportunities for age appropriate independence from caregiver Encouraging development of mental models of mother through symbols, transitional objects and...

Paternal Versus Maternal Involvement With Children

Interaction refers to the father's direct contact with his child through caregiving and shared activities. Availability is a related concept concerning the child's potential availability for interaction, by virtue of being present or accessible to the child whether or not direct interaction is occurring. Responsibility refers to the role the father takes in ascertaining that the child is taken care of and arranging for resources to be available for the child.

Capacity For Mothering

The capacity for forming relationships and confidence in visualizing self as mother are efficient predictors in anticipating parent-child and child outcomes (Heinicke, in Vol. 3 of this Handbook). A simple self-report measure of the transition to motherhood has been reported Ruble et al. (1990) constructed a questionnaire and completed preliminary psychometric testing on the Childbearing Attitude Questionnaire. This scale contains 16 factors maternal worries, maternal self-confidence, relationship with husband, relationship with mother, body image, identification with pregnancy, feelings about children, negative self-image, attitude toward breast-feeding, pain tolerance, interest in sex, denial, negative aspects of caregiving, feelings of dependency, social boredom, and information seeking. The questionnaire was given at three time points prepregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum to 51 women. There was a consistency in perception of self and others across the time points, supporting the...

Contexts of Parenting

Mothers in different cultures show striking similarities in interacting with their infants as well. All must nurture and promote the physical growth of infants if their infants are to survive (Bornstein, 1989a, 1995 LeVine, 1988). Whether converging patterns in mothers reflect biological bases of caregiving, the historical convergence of parenting styles, or the increasing prevalence of a single childrearing pattern through migration or dissemination by mass media is difficult, if not impossible, to determine. In the end, different peoples (presumably) wish to promote similar general competencies in their young. Some do so in qualitatively and quantitatively similar ways. Others appear to do so differently, and of course, culture-specific patterns of childrearing can be expected to be adapted to each specific society's settings and needs (Lerner, 1989 Valsiner, 1987).

Quantitative Assessments of Father Involvement in Intact Families

On the one hand, fathers seem to be increasing their involvement and moving slowly toward more equal participation with their wives in the care and rearing of children. On the other hand, increases in father absence, nonpayment of child support, and denial of paternity suggest that a less desirable side of fatherhood is evident as well. As in prior decades, the movement is not linear and straightforward but is contradictory and inconsistent. Even among contemporary fathers in intact families, there is considerable variability in the level and type of involvement. For example, Jain, Belsky, and Crinic (1996) identified two major types of fathers, namely a set of progressive fathers who engaged in caregiving, play and teaching and a group of traditional fathers who were either disengaged or functioned as disciplinarians. In sum, both across time and in our own era, there are wide individual differences among fathers that are often obscured by our focus on...

Competence Versus Performance

The lower level of father involvement in caregiving and other forms of interaction does not imply that fathers are less competent than mothers to care for infants and children. Competence can be measured in a variety of ways One approach is to measure the parent's sensitivity to infant cues in the feeding context. Success in caregiving, to a large degree, depends on the parent's ability to correctly read or interpret the infant's behavior so that the parent's own behavior can be regulated to respond appropriately. Parke and Sawin (1975, 1976) found that fathers' sensitivities to a variety of cues auditory distress signals during feeding (sneeze, spitup, cough), vocalizations, mouth movements was just as marked as mothers' responsitivities to these cues. Both fathers and mothers adjusted their behavior (e.g., looked more closely, vocalized) in response to these infant cues. In a later study (Parke and Sawin, 1980), it was shown that parent vocalizations can modify infant vocalizations....

ERP Studies of Rearing in Atypical Environments

Although the proposition that greater attentiveness to a stimulus is associated with enhancement of processes involved in updating memory for that stimulus may be self-evident, these co-occurring processes demonstrate the facilitative effect of attention on infant recognition memory. Thus, given that the institutionalized group of children displayed lower amplitudes of the Nc and PSW ERP components compared to the never-institutionalized group, it could be inferred that this general hypo-activation may reflect some general neurofunctional deficit in attention and memory processes. Also, early deficits in attentional processes revealed by ERPs (namely the Nc) may mark a vulnerability for these high-risk children to develop later deficits in memory functioning. Parker and Nelson (2005b) utilized the same sample of Romanian youngsters to examine neural processes involved in recognizing familiar and novel people, by recording ERPs elicited by images of caregivers' and strangers' faces. As...

Will my baby be more attached to his child care provider than to me

If you find yourself feeling jealous of other adults who share the care of your baby, it may help to know you are not alone. Most parents, at one time or another, feel concerned that their baby may become more attached to a caregiver than to them. As a new parent, you may want to do everything for your baby and do it better than anyone else. But it sometimes seems that other people know more than you. Your mother-in-law may comfort your baby by singing wonderful baby songs that you don't know. Your husband may hold your baby in the air and make him giggle in a way he never does with you, or your wife may seem to know exactly how to comfort your baby while you are just beginning to figure out what to do when he is upset. Sharing the care of a baby you love so deeply is not easy yet as a working parent, you do it every day. And that can give rise to a dilemma you want a caregiver who is loving and caring, but you worry your child might love the caregiver more than you. The caregiver's...

Nanny training schools

There are approximately 30 nanny training programs currently operating in the United States. Some programs provide training and placement while others only provide training. Some programs are privately owned a larger number are affiliated with community colleges. Some may have waiting lists you'll want to get on. Some private nanny schools seek local families to serve as host families while students are in training or serving internships. You may be able to secure a caregiver by volunteering to fill this role. To find out about nanny training programs, visit the Web site of The Nanny Association, www.nannyassociation.com.

In the back flap

Throughout In-Home Child Care A Parent's Guide, the female pronoun is used to refer to the in-home caregiver. We have used the words she and her only because, in fact, most in-home caregivers are women. This in no way implies that consideration should not be given to qualified men.

Common Terms

In this guide the words in-home caregiver or in-home provider are used to describe any person who cares for children in your home. As you search for in-home child care, you'll probably hear a variety of other terms as well. Many are used interchangeably - one family's nanny is another family's babysitter. The definitions below are based on those used by the International Nanny Association for some of the most common terms. It's useful to understand the distinctions, especially if you decide to work with an in-home placement agency. (Please note salaries mentioned below do not include other potential costs, such as health insurance and other benefits, travel expenses for non-local caregivers, and so on. For more information on total costs, see page 24.)

How To Use This Book

Consult those who know your kid well other family, teacher, day care teachers, coach, scout leader, Sunday school teachers, clergy, babysitters to find out their perspective on your kid's attitude. For instance, does your kid act the same way with them What do they think is causing the bad attitude How do they respond Does it work What suggestions do they have When you develop any makeover plan, share it with them. The more you work together, the quicker you'll be in stopping the bad attitude. Consistency is a critical part of an effective makeover.

Attachment

At the core of the process of forming a safe harbor is a concept known as attachment. The term attachment refers to two interconnected and interdependent concepts (1) a set of behaviors present in all humans from their first moments of life that is activated when a child feels distressed or in danger to help ensure safety and survival and (2) the type of closeness and connection a child has with his primary caregiver that depends significantly on the caregiver's response. Attachment behaviors (crying, clinging, searching, calling, crawling, etc.) allow the child to monitor the whereabouts of and obtain a close proximity to his primary caregiver. These are most highly activated when a child is not physically close to the primary caregiver at a time when he feels distressed or in danger. How the caregiver responds to a child's attachment behaviors will determine whether a child develops a secure or insecure attachment with his caregiver. The type of attachment the child develops will...

Parents helper

A parent's helper assists parents in child care, without generally being left in charge of the children for long periods of time. Salaries vary by the region the care-giver comes from and the region in which the family lives. In some cases, a parent's helper is a high school student.

Babysitter

High school and college students are often available for part-time and summer child care jobs, as are others who prefer to work occasionally rather than on a steady basis. Be sure to talk with your neighbors or post flyers in local stores where students shop. Babysitters are usually paid by the hour or day and usually earn at least minimum wage when they work regular hours, but the national average is 6 to 10 per hour. Babysitters who work on an occasional basis may be shared with other families. For this type of caregiver, chapters 3 and 5 and the Medical Release Form on page 66 will be the most helpful parts of this guide.

Other conditions

When hiring a live-in caregiver, families often find it helpful to summarize details about living accommodations. At the very least, use the work agreement to note the caregiver is to be provided separate quarters, a private room, private or shared bath, etc. Some families also note such arrangements as a food allowance for the caregiver, if she or the family prefers that she eat separately from the family whether the caregiver is allowed to have friends visit her in the household during her off hours whether she has a curfew, etc. A responsible family does not abuse or take advantage of a caregiver's willingness to be helpful (nor does a responsible caregiver abuse a family's flexibility and willingness to accommodate her needs). If you find that you are constantly having to ask the caregiver to work extra hours or do extra chores, your needs are obviously different from what you had anticipated, and it is time to re-negotiate the work agreement. Don't wait until the caregiver feels...

Benefits

Your ability to attract and keep a qualified caregiver is likely to depend in part upon the extras you offer her. The work agreement should indicate what your benefits package includes, such as holidays, vacation, sick leave, and personal leave. It should specify whether the caregiver may take vacation at times of her choice or only when the family takes a vacation. The document might also describe the care giver's access to and use of your car, whether for child-related errands only or for personal use details of any health insurance coverage you are providing and details of any perks, such as a private phone line, cable television, etc. Since part-time employees in other professions often receive fewer benefits than their full-time colleagues, or none at all, you may be tempted to think the same should hold true for part-time caregivers. However, finding and keeping a good part-time caregiver is sometimes even more difficult than finding a caregiver to work full time, and many...